ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Ivermectin Use in Scabies - Article
ABSTRACT: Oral ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. It may be particularly useful in the treatment of severely crusted scabies lesions in immunocompromised patients or when topical therapy has failed. Oral dosing may be more convenient in institutional outbreaks and in the treatment of mentally impaired patients. Ivermectin has been used extensively and safely in the treatment of other parasitic infections, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved the drug for the treatment of scabies infection. The safety of oral ivermectin in pregnant and lactating women and young children has yet to be established.
Case Studies in International Medicine - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A “no nit” policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer.