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Joint and Soft Tissue Injection - Article
ABSTRACT: Injection techniques are helpful for diagnosis and therapy in a wide variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diagnostic indications include the aspiration of fluid for analysis and the assessment of pain relief and increased range of motion as a diagnostic tool. Therapeutic indications include the delivery of local anesthetics for pain relief and the delivery of corticosteroids for suppression of inflammation. Side effects are few, but may include tendon rupture, infection, steroid flare, hypopigmentation, and soft tissue atrophy. Injection technique requires knowledge of anatomy of the targeted area and a thorough understanding of the agents used. In this overview, the indications, contraindications, potential side effects, timing, proper technique, necessary materials, pharmaceuticals used and their actions, and post-procedure care of patients are presented.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the hip and knee regions is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedure for the greater trochanteric bursa, the knee joint, the pes anserine bursa, the iliotibial band, and the prepatellar bursa is reviewed. Indications for greater trochanteric bursa injection include acute and chronic inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, repetitive use, and other traumatic injuries to the area. For the knee joint, aspiration may be performed to aid in the diagnosis of an unexplained effusion and relieve discomfort caused by an effusion. Injection of the knee can be performed for viscosupplementation or corticosteroid therapy. Indications for corticosteroid injection include advanced osteoarthritis and other inflammatory arthritides, such as gout or calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Swelling and tenderness of pes anserine or prepatellar bursae can be relieved with aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Persistent pain and disability from iliotibial band syndrome respond to local injection therapy. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Joint and soft tissue injection of the ankle and foot region is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. This article reviews the injection procedure for the plantar fascia, ankle joint, tarsal tunnel, interdigital space, and first metatarsophalangeal joint. Indications for plantar fascia injection include degeneration secondary to repetitive use and traumatic injuries that are unresponsive to conservative treatment. Diagnostic aspiration or therapeutic injection of the ankle or first metatarsophalangeal joints can be performed for management of advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory arthritides such as gout, or synovitis or an arthrosis such as "turf toe." Persistent pain and disability resulting from tarsal tunnel syndrome, an analog of carpal tunnel syndrome of the wrist respond to local injection therapy. A painful interdigital space, such as that occurring in patients with Morton's neuroma, is commonly relieved with corticosteroid injection. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
ABSTRACT: The most common site of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the urogenital tract. Men with this infection may experience dysuria with penile discharge, and women may have mild vaginal mucopurulent discharge, severe pelvic pain, or no symptoms. Other N. gonorrhoeae infections include anorectal, conjunctival, pharyngeal, and ovarian/uterine. Infections that occur in the neonatal period may cause ophthalmia neonatorum. If left untreated, N. gonorrhoeae infections can disseminate to other areas of the body, which commonly causes synovium and skin infections. Disseminated gonococcal infection presents as a few skin lesions that are limited to the extremities. These legions start as papules and progress into bullae, petechiae, and necrotic lesions. The most commonly infected joints include wrists, ankles, and the joints of the hands and feet. Urogenital N. gonorrhoeae infections can be diagnosed using culture or nonculture (e.g., the nucleic acid amplification test) techniques. When multiple sites are potentially infected, culture is the only approved diagnostic test. Treatments for uncomplicated urogenital, anorectal, or pharyngeal gonococcal infections include cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones should not be used in patients who live in or may have contracted gonorrhea in Asia, the Pacific islands, or California, or in men who have sex with men. Gonorrhea infection should prompt physicians to test for other sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus.
ABSTRACT: Although most persons with parvovirus B19 infection are asymptomatic or have mild, nonspecific, cold-like symptoms, several clinical conditions have been linked to the virus. Parvovirus B19 usually infects children and causes the classic "slapped-cheek" rash of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). The virus is highly infectious and spreads mainly through respiratory droplets. By the time the rash appears, the virus is no longer infectious. The virus also may cause acute or persistent arthropathy and papular, purpuric eruptions on the hands and feet ("gloves and socks" syndrome) in adults. Parvovirus B19 infection can trigger an acute cessation of red blood cell production, causing transient aplastic crisis, chronic red cell aplasia, hydrops fetalis, or congenital anemia. This is even more likely in patients with illnesses that have already shortened the lifespan of erythrocytes (e.g., iron deficiency anemia, human immunodeficiency virus, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, spherocytosis). A clinical diagnosis can be made without laboratory confirmation if erythema infectiosum is present. If laboratory confirmation is needed, serum immunoglobulin M testing is recommended for immunocompetent patients; viral DNA testing is recommended for patients in aplastic crisis and for those who are immunocompromised. Treatment is usually supportive, although some patients may require transfusions or intravenous immune globulin therapy. Most patients recover completely.
ABSTRACT: Shoulder pain is defined as chronic when it has been present for longer than six months. Common conditions that can result in chronic shoulder pain include rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Rotator cuff disorders include tendinopathy, partial tears, and complete tears. A clinical decision rule that is helpful in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears includes pain with overhead activity, weakness on empty can and external rotation tests, and a positive impingement sign. Adhesive capsulitis can be associated with diabetes and thyroid disorders. Clinical presentation includes diffuse shoulder pain with restricted passive range of motion on examination. Acromioclavicular osteoarthritis presents with superior shoulder pain, acromioclavicular joint tenderness, and a painful cross-body adduction test. In patients who are older than 50 years, glenohumeral osteoarthritis usually presents as gradual pain and loss of motion. In patients younger than 40 years, glenohumeral instability generally presents with a history of dislocation or subluxation events. Positive apprehension and relocation are consistent with the diagnosis. Imaging studies, indicated when diagnosis remains unclear or management would be altered, include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and computed tomography scans. Plain radiographs may help diagnose massive rotator cuff tears, shoulder instability, and shoulder arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are preferred for rotator cuff disorders. For shoulder instability, magnetic resonance imaging arthrogram is preferred over magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT: Chronic shoulder pain is a common problem in the primary care physician's office. Effective treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis of the more common etiologies: rotator cuff disorders, adhesive capsulitis, acromioclavicular osteoarthritis, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, and instability. Activity modification and analgesic medications comprise the initial treatment in most cases. If this does not lead to improvement, or if the initial presentation is of sufficient severity, a trial of physical therapy that focuses on the specific diagnosis is indicated. Combined steroid and local anesthetic injections can be used alone or as an adjuvant to the physical therapy. The site of the injection (subacromial, acromioclavicular joint, or intra-articular) depends on the diagnosis. Injections into the glenohumeral joint should be done under fluoroscopic guidance. Symptoms that persist or worsen after six to 12 weeks of directed treatment should be referred to an orthopedic specialist.
Commonly Missed Orthopedic Problems - Article
ABSTRACT: When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon.
Anterior Hip Pain - Article
ABSTRACT: Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity.
Parvovirus B19 Infections - Article
ABSTRACT: Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 can result in a wide spectrum of manifestations, which are usually influenced by the patient's immunologic and hematologic status. In the normal host, parvovirus infection can be asymptomatic or can result in erythema infectiosum or arthropathy. Patients with underlying hematologic and immunologic disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for aplastic anemia. Hydrops fetalis and fetal death are complications of intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection.