ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
The Role of Literacy in Health and Health Care - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by excessive serotonergic activity in the nervous system. It is characterized by mental status changes, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular hyperactivity. Most reported cases of serotonin syndrome are in patients using multiple serotonergic drugs or who have had considerable exposure to a single serotonin-augmenting drug. Diagnosis is made using the Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria, which require the presence of one of the following classical features or groups of features: spontaneous clonus; inducible clonus with agitation or diaphoresis; ocular clonus with agitation or diaphoresis; tremor and hyperreflexia; or hypertonia, temperature above 100.4°?F (38°?C), and ocular or inducible clonus. Most cases of serotonin syndrome are mild and may be treated by withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Benzodiazepines may be used to treat agitation and tremor. Cyproheptadine may be used as an antidote. Patients with moderate or severe cases of serotonin syndrome require hospitalization. Critically ill patients may require neuromuscular paralysis, sedation, and intubation. If serotonin syndrome is recognized and complications are managed appropriately, the prognosis is favorable.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse - Article
ABSTRACT: Pelvic organ prolapse, or genital prolapse, is the descent of one or more of the pelvic structures (bladder, uterus, vagina) from the normal anatomic location toward or through the vaginal opening. Women of all ages may be affected, although pelvic organ prolapse is more common in older women. The cause is a loss of pelvic support from multiple factors, including direct injury to the levator ani, as well as neurologic injury from stretching of the pudendal nerves that may occur with vaginal childbirth. Previous hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse; ethnicity; and an increase in intra-abdominal pressure from chronic coughing, straining with constipation, or repeated heavy lifting may contribute. Most patients with pelvic organ prolapse are asymptomatic. A sense of bulging or protrusion in the vagina is the most specific symptom. Evaluation includes a systematic pelvic examination. Management options for women with symptomatic prolapse include observation, pelvic floor muscle training, mechanical support (pessaries), and surgery. Pessary use should be considered before surgery in women who have symptomatic prolapse. Most women can be fitted with a pessary regardless of the stage or site of predominant prolapse. Surgical procedures are obliterative or reconstructive.
Primary Care Interventions to Promote Breastfeeding - Putting Prevention into Practice
What a Patient's Numbers Don't Tell - The Last Word
Prevention of Malaria in Travelers - Article
ABSTRACT: There are approximately 300 million cases of malaria each year, resulting in 1 million deaths worldwide. Family physicians often encounter patients preparing to travel to malaria-endemic regions. Physicians should have basic knowledge of parasite transmission and malaria prevention. The risk of malaria acquisition is based largely on geographic location and travel season. Most cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia between the months of May and December. Key elements in prevention include barrier protection and chemoprophylaxis. Travelers to malaria-endemic areas should be advised to use mosquito repellent at all times and bed netting at night. Prophylactic medication should be initiated before travel and continued after return. Travelers should be warned that malaria symptoms can present up to one year after a mosquito bite. Symptoms are vague, and may include fever, chills, arthralgias, and headaches. Travelers experiencing symptoms should seek prompt medical attention.