ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Induction of labor is common in obstetric practice. According to the most current studies, the rate varies from 9.5 to 33.7 percent of all pregnancies annually. In the absence of a ripe or favorable cervix, a successful vaginal birth is less likely. Therefore, cervical ripening or preparedness for induction should be assessed before a regimen is selected. Assessment is accomplished by calculating a Bishop score. When the Bishop score is less than 6, it is recommended that a cervical ripening agent be used before labor induction. Nonpharmacologic approaches to cervical ripening and labor induction have included herbal compounds, castor oil, hot baths, enemas, sexual intercourse, breast stimulation, acupuncture, acupressure, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, and mechanical and surgical modalities. Of these nonpharmacologic methods, only the mechanical and surgical methods have proven efficacy for cervical ripening or induction of labor. Pharmacologic agents available for cervical ripening and labor induction include prostaglandins, misoprostol, mifepristone, and relaxin. When the Bishop score is favorable, the preferred pharmacologic agent is oxytocin.
Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - Article
ABSTRACT: Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor is not progressing, inadequate uterine contractions, fetal malposition, or cephalopelvic disproportion may be the cause. Before resorting to operative delivery for arrested labor, physicians should ensure that the patient has had adequate uterine contractions for four hours, using oxytocin infusion for augmentation as needed. For nulliparous women, high-dose oxytocin-infusion protocols for labor augmentation decrease the time to delivery compared with low-dose protocols without causing adverse outcomes. The second stage of labor can be permitted to continue for longer than traditional time limits if fetal monitoring is reassuring and there is progress in descent. Prevention of dystocia includes encouraging the use of trained labor support companions, deferring hospital admission until the active phase of labor when possible, avoiding elective labor induction before 41 weeks' gestation, and using epidural analgesia judiciously.
Induction of Labor at or Beyond Term - Cochrane for Clinicians
Responding to a Colleague Who Neglects Best Practices - Curbside Consultation
ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia - Practice Guidelines
Labor Induction: A Decade of Change - Editorials
ACOG Releases Report on Dystocia and Augmentation of Labor - Practice Guidelines
Planned Early Birth vs. Expectant Management for PROM - Cochrane for Clinicians
ACOG Issues Report on the Management of Post-term Pregnancy - Special Medical Reports