ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - Article
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with an average five-year survival rate of 15 percent. Smoking remains the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancers are categorized as small cell carcinoma or non-small cell carcinoma (e.g., adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma). These categories are used for treatment decisions and determining prognosis. Signs and symptoms may vary depending on tumor type and extent of metastases. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lung cancer includes tissue diagnosis; a complete staging work-up, including evaluation of metastases; and a functional patient evaluation. Histologic diagnosis may be obtained with sputum cytology, thoracentesis, accessible lymph node biopsy, bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle aspiration, video-assisted thoracoscopy, or thoracotomy. Initial evaluation for metastatic disease relies on patient history and physical examination, laboratory tests, chest computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and tissue confirmation of mediastinal involvement. Further evaluation for metastases depends on the clinical presentation. Treatment and prognosis are closely tied to the type and stage of the tumor identified. For stages I through IIIA non-small cell carcinoma, surgical resection is preferred. Advanced non-small cell carcinoma is treated with a multimodality approach that may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and palliative care. Chemotherapy (combined with radiotherapy for limited disease) is the mainstay of treatment for small cell carcinoma. No major organization recommends screening for early detection of lung cancer, although screening has interested researchers and physicians. Smoking cessation remains the critical component of preventive primary care.
Asbestos-Related Lung Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: The inhalation of asbestos fibers may lead to a number of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, asbestosis, pleural plaques, benign pleural effusion, and malignant mesothelioma. Although exposure is now regulated, patients continue to present with these diseases because of the long latent period between exposure and clinical disease. Presenting signs and symptoms tend to be nonspecific; thus, the occupational history helps guide clinical suspicion. High-risk populations include persons in construction trades, boilermakers, shipyard workers, railroad workers, and U.S. Navy veterans. Every effort should be made to minimize ongoing exposure. Patients with a history of significant asbestos exposure may warrant diagnostic testing and follow-up assessment, although it is unclear whether this improves outcomes. Patients with significant exposure and dyspnea should have chest radiography and spirometry. The prognosis depends on the specific disease entity. Asbestosis generally progresses slowly, whereas malignant mesothelioma has an extremely poor prognosis. The treatment of patients with asbestos exposure and lung cancer is identical to that of any patient with lung cancer. Because exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing lung cancer in patients with a history of asbestos exposure, smoking cessation is essential. Patients with asbestosis or lung cancer should receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.
A Major Medical Error - Curbside Consultation
A Swollen, Draining Thumb - Photo Quiz
"Wood-Grain" Skin - Photo Quiz
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule in an 84-Year-Old Man - Photo Quiz
Shoulder Pain with a Lung Mass - Photo Quiz
Pain, Depression and Survival - Editorials
Painter's Knee? - Photo Quiz