ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
ABSTRACT: Mental retardation in young children is often missed by clinicians. The condition is present in 2 to 3 percent of the population, either as an isolated finding or as part of a syndrome or broader disorder. Causes of mental retardation are numerous and include genetic and environmental factors. In at least 30 to 50 percent of cases, physicians are unable to determine etiology despite thorough evaluation. Diagnosis is highly dependent on a comprehensive personal and family medical history, a complete physical examination and a careful developmental assessment of the child. These will guide appropriate evaluations and referrals to provide genetic counseling, resources for the family and early intervention programs for the child. The family physician is encouraged to continue regular follow-up visits with the child to facilitate a smooth transition to adolescence and young adulthood.
ABSTRACT: The most common endogenous cause of Cushing's syndrome is Cushing's disease. Frequent clinical findings include weight gain, truncal obesity, striae, hypertension, glucose intolerance and infections. Cranial nerve II may be affected by enlarging pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease; cranial nerves III, IV and VI may also be affected. The evaluation of patients with suspected Cushing's disease and syndrome requires an understanding of the proper use and limitations of the tests commonly included in the diagnostic work-up. The best screening test for Cushing's syndrome is a 24-hour urine collection with analysis for urinary free cortisol excretion. Low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests, corticotropin assays, a corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test and inferior petrosal sinus catheterization may be required for a definitive diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in localizing the lesion. Surgical removal of the lesion by a transphenoidal approach is usually successful, but long-term follow-up is required. Some patients require lifetime glucocorticoid replacement therapy.
Headache Consortium Releases Guidelines for Use of CT or MRI in Migraine Work-Up - Practice Guidelines
Acute Venous Thromboembolism: Diagnostic Guidelines - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract at any point from the mouth to the rectum. Patients may experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, abdominal masses, and anemia. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn’s disease include osteoporosis, inflammatory arthropathies, scleritis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, and erythema nodosum. Acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are often increased with inflammation and may correlate with disease activity. Levels of vitamin B12, folate, albumin, prealbumin, and vitamin D can help assess nutritional status. Colonoscopy with ileoscopy, capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, and small bowel follow-through are often used to diagnose Crohn’s disease. Ultrasonography, computed axial tomography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging can assess for extraintestinal manifestations or complications (e.g., abscess, perforation). Mesalamine products are often used for the medical management of mild to moderate colonic Crohn’s disease. Antibiotics (e.g., metronidazole, fluoroquinolones) are often used for treatment. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease are treated with corticosteroids, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or anti–tumor necrosis factor agents (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab). Severe disease may require emergent hospitalization and a multidisciplinary approach with a family physician, gastroenterologist, and surgeon.
ABSTRACT: Although historical findings have some value in diagnosing internal derangement of the knee, a thorough physical examination can often rule out fracture and ligamentous and meniscal injuries. The Ottawa Knee Rule can help physicians determine which patients require radiography. Positive physical examination tests and findings of acute effusion suggest internal derangement. An abnormal McMurray or Thessaly test strongly suggests meniscal injury, whereas a normal Thessaly test may rule out meniscal injury. Absence of evidence of joint effusion significantly decreases the probability of internal derangement. Magnetic resonance imaging should be reserved for ruling out internal derangement in patients with suggestive historical and physical examination findings.
Evaluation of Hip Pain in Older Adults - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Breast Cancer Screening Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially to women 50 to 74 years of age. For women 40 to 49 years of age, the risks and benefits of screening should be discussed, and the decision to perform screening should take into consideration the individual patient risk, values, and comfort level of the patient and physician. Information is lacking about the effectiveness of screening in women 75 years and older. The decision to screen women in this age group should be individualized, keeping the patient’s life expectancy, functional status, and goals of care in mind. For women with an estimated lifetime breast cancer risk of more than 20 percent or who have a BRCA mutation, screening should begin at 25 years of age or at the age that is five to 10 years younger than the earliest age that breast cancer was diagnosed in the family. Screening with magnetic resonance imaging may be considered in high-risk women, but its impact on breast cancer mortality is uncertain. Clinical breast examination plus mammography seems to be no more effective than mammography alone at reducing breast cancer mortality. Teaching breast self-examination does not improve mortality and is not recommended; however, women should be aware of any changes in their breasts and report them promptly.