ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ACSM/AHA Release Recommendations for Fitness Facilities - Special Medical Reports
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
Health Screening in Older Women - Article
ABSTRACT: Health screening is an important aspect of health promotion and disease prevention in women over 65 years of age. Screening efforts should address conditions that cause significant morbidity and mortality in this age group. In addition to screening for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and cancer, primary care physicians should identify risk factors unique to an aging population. These factors include hearing and vision loss, dysmobility or functional impairment, osteoporosis, cognitive and affective disorders, urinary incontinence and domestic violence. Although screening for many conditions cannot be proved to merit an "A" recommendation (indicating conclusive proof of benefit), special attention to these factors can decrease morbidity and improve quality of life in aging women.
Testicular Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Although testicular cancer accounts for only 1 percent of all tumors in males, it is the most common malignancy in males between 15 and 34 years of age. Cryptorchidism is the most significant risk factor for testicular cancer, increasing the risk up to 11-fold. A painless testicular mass is the classic presentation for testicular cancer, although a number of patients present with diffuse pain or swelling. Ultrasonography may be helpful in confirming the presence of a scrotal mass within the testicle. Intratesticular masses are considered malignant until proved otherwise. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment for the primary tumor. Staging of disease is based on tumor histology, serum tumor markers and presence of lymph-node or other metastatic disease. Depending on the stage of disease, further treatment may include observation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or surgery. Survival rates in patients with testicular cancer have improved dramatically in the past 20 years and now exceed 90 percent overall.
Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Article
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) causes abnormal carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance is a major contributor to progression of the disease and to complications of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a common and underdiagnosed condition that poses treatment challenges to family practitioners. The introduction of new oral agents within the past three years has expanded the range of possible combination regimens available for treating type 2 diabetes. Despite the choice of pharmacologic agents, physicians must stress the nonpharmacologic approaches of diet modification, weight control and regular exercise. Pharmacologic approaches must be based on patient characteristics, level of glucose control and cost considerations. Combinations of different oral agents may be useful for controlling hyperglycemia before insulin therapy becomes necessary. A stepped-care approach to drug therapy may provide the most rational, cost-efficient approach to management of this disease. Pharmaco-economic analyses of clinical trials are needed to determine cost-effective treatment strategies for management of type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Spurred by mounting evidence that the detection and treatment of early-stage colorectal cancers and adenomatous polyps can reduce mortality, Medicare and some other payors recently authorized reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening in persons at average risk for this malignancy. A collaborative group of experts convened by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research has recommended screening for average-risk persons over the age of 50 years using one of the following techniques: fecal occult blood testing each year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, fecal occult blood testing every year combined with flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, double-contrast barium enema every five to 10 years or colonoscopy every 10 years. Screening of persons with risk factors should begin at an earlier age, depending on the family history of colorectal cancer or polyps. These recommendations augment the colorectal cancer screening guidelines of the American Academy of Family physicians. Recent advances in genetic research have made it possible to identify persons at high risk for colorectal cancer because of an inherited predisposition to develop this malignancy. These patients require aggressive screening, usually by lower endoscopy performed at an early age. In some patients, genetic testing can guide screening and may be cost-effective.
Endometrial Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, accounting for approximately 6,000 deaths per year in the United States. It is more common in women who are older, white, affluent obese and of low parity. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are also predisposing factors. Because any condition that increases exposure to unopposed estrogen increases the risk of endometrial cancer, tamoxifen therapy, estrogen replacement therapy without progestin and the presence of estrogen-secreting tumors are all risk factors. Smoking and the use of oral contraceptives appear to decrease the risk. Women with an increased risk and those with postmenopausal bleeding should be screened for endometrial cancer. Endometrial sampling is currently the most accurate and widely used screening technique, but ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial thickness and hysteroscopy have also been studied. Patients with endometrial specimens that show atypia have about a 25 percent likelihood of progressing to carcinoma, compared with less than 2 percent in patients without atypia. Endometrial cancer is usually treated surgically, but in patients with appropriate pathologic findings who decline surgical treatment, progestin therapy may be satisfactory.
Screening Options for Colorectal Cancer - Editorials