Items in AFP with MESH term: Mass Screening
ABSTRACT: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a condition in which a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but does not currently have active tuberculosis disease. An estimated 10 to 15 million persons in the United States have LTBI. Because 5 to 10 percent of persons with LTBI are at risk of progressing to active disease, identification and treatment of LTBI are essential for the elimination of tuberculosis. Screening is recommended for high-risk persons, including immigrants; residents and employees of congregate living facilities; and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Targeted tuberculin skin testing remains the most acceptable method of LTBI screening. New tests are being developed, the most promising of which are in vitro interferon-gamma release assays. All screened persons found to have LTBI should be offered treatment, regardless of age. Before initiating treatment, active tuberculosis must be ruled out by patient history, physical examination, and chest radiography. The treatment of choice for LTBI is isoniazid for nine months. Hepatotoxicity is the most severe adverse effect. Isoniazid should be discontinued if transaminase levels are greater than three times the upper limit of normal in symptomatic patients or five times the upper limit of normal in asymptomatic patients.
Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes, including reduced rates of shoulder dystocia, fractures, nerve palsies, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Diagnosis is made using a sequential model of universal screening with a 50-g one-hour glucose challenge test, followed by a diagnostic 100-g three-hour oral glucose tolerance test for women with a positive screening test. Treatment consists of glucose monitoring, dietary modification, exercise, and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy to maintain euglycemia. Insulin therapy is the mainstay of treatment, although glyburide and metformin may become more widely used. In women receiving pharmacotherapy, antenatal testing with nonstress tests and amniotic fluid indices beginning in the third trimester is generally used to monitor fetal well-being. The method and timing of delivery are controversial. Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification should therefore be encouraged, along with regular screening for diabetes.
Screening for High Blood Pressure - Putting Prevention into Practice
Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Iron Deficiency Anemia-Including Iron Supplementation for Children and Pregnant Women - Putting Prevention into Practice
Medicare Expands Preventive Screening Benefits - Getting Paid
Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Spirometry: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Telephone Triage of Patients with Influenza - Editorials