Items in AFP with MESH term: Menopause
ABSTRACT: With growing concern about the use of hormone replacement therapy, some women are looking for alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms and preventing postmenopausal cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. In observational trials, exercise has been associated with decreased vasomotor symptoms. One trial suggested that black cohosh may reduce menopausal symptoms. Soy has been shown to decrease vasomotor symptoms, lower lipid levels, and increase bone density. However, large amounts of soy must be consumed, and it is not clear whether soy consumption causes a decrease in cardiovascular events or fractures. The evidence for St. John's wort is equivocal. Fish oil is helpful for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.
ABSTRACT: Numerous reports in the medical literature and popular media have discussed the effectiveness of various nonhormonal agents in reducing menopausal hot flash symptoms. Data for these therapies are limited, and most of the studies have been conducted in women with a history of breast cancer. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine have been shown to reduce hot flashes by 19 to 60 percent and were well tolerated by study participants. Soy isoflavones reduced hot flashes by 9 to 40 percent in some trials, but most trials showed no difference compared with placebo. Black cohosh and red clover also have had inconsistent results, with some trials showing benefit and some no difference compared with placebo. Soy isoflavones, black cohosh, and red clover were well tolerated in clinical trials. Other agents that have been used to alleviate hot flashes include belladonna/ergotamine tartrate/phenobarbital combination, dong quai, evening primrose oil, gabapentin, ginseng, mirtazapine, trazodone, vitamin E, and wild yam, but few data regarding their effectiveness have been published. Further randomized controlled trials are needed.
Hormone Therapy: Continuing Discussion and Debate - Editorials
Black cohosh. - Complementary and Alternative Medicine
ABSTRACT: The herb black cohosh, or Actaea racemosa (formerly named Cimicifuga racemosa), is native to North America. The roots and rhizomes of this herb are widely used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms and menstrual dysfunction. Studies have demonstrated that this botanic medicine, when standardized properly to the terpene glycoside fraction, appears to be effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms. Adverse effects are extremely uncommon, and there are no known significant adverse drug interactions.
Evening Primrose Oil - Article
ABSTRACT: Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a commonly used alternative therapy and a rich source of omega-6 essential fatty acids. It is best known for its use in the treatment of systemic diseases marked by chronic inflammation, such as atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is often used for several women's health conditions, including breast pain (mastalgia), menopausal and premenstrual symptoms, cervical ripening, and labor induction or augmentation. However, there is insufficient evidence to make a reliable assessment of its effectiveness for most clinical indications. The current evidence suggests that oral evening primrose oil does not provide clinically significant improvement in persons with atopic dermatitis, and that it is also likely ineffective for the treatment of cyclical mastalgia and premenstrual syndrome. However, most trials to date have significant methodologic flaws and must be considered preliminary. The use of evening primrose oil during pregnancy is not supported in the literature and should be avoided. Evening primrose oil is generally well tolerated, with reported minor adverse effects, including gastrointestinal upset and headaches. Optimal dosing standards and treatment regimens await clarification in adequately powered clinical trials.
Managing Menopause - Article
ABSTRACT: Many women will spend one third of their lifetime after menopause. A growing number of options are available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms like vasomotor instability and vaginal atrophy, as well as the long-term health risks such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis that are associated with menopause. Currently, hormone replacement therapy (estrogen with or without progestin) is the primary treatment for the symptoms and long-term risks associated with menopause. However, recent evidence calls into question the protective effect of estrogen on cardiovascular disease risk. The association of risk for breast cancer with estrogen replacement therapy also has not been fully clarified. In addition, many women cannot or choose not to take hormones. For treatment of osteoporosis and heart disease, pharmacologic choices include antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates and calcitonin, and estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators such as raloxifene. In addition, complementary options that include vitamins, herbal treatments, exercise and other lifestyle adaptations are gaining increased interest. The growing number of choices and questions in this area emphasizes the need to individualize a treatment plan for each woman to meet her specific needs.
Options and Issues in Managing Menopause - Editorials
Exercise for Treatment of the Vasomotor Symptoms of Menopause - Cochrane for Clinicians
Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions - Putting Prevention into Practice