ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatrogenic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by exclusion of these causes. In women of childbearing age who are at high risk for endometrial cancer, the initial evaluation includes endometrial biopsy; saline-infusion sonohysterography or diagnostic hysteroscopy is performed if initial studies are inconclusive or the bleeding continues. Women of childbearing age who are at low risk for endometrial cancer may be assessed initially by transvaginal ultrasonography. Postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding should be offered dilatation and curettage; if they are poor candidates for general anesthesia or decline dilatation and curettage, they may be offered transvaginal ultrasonography or saline-infusion sonohysterography with directed endometrial biopsy. Medical management of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding may include oral contraceptive pills or cyclic progestins. Menorrhagia is managed most effectively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive device. Surgical management may include hysterectomy or less invasive, uterus-sparing procedures.
Treatment of Menorrhagia - Article
ABSTRACT: Menorrhagia is defined as excessive uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals or prolonged uterine bleeding lasting more than seven days. The classic definition of menorrhagia (i.e., greater than 80 mL of blood loss per cycle) is rarely used clinically. Women describe the loss or reduction of daily activities as more important than the actual volume of bleeding. Routine testing of all women with menorrhagia for inherited coagulation disorders is unnecessary. Saline infusion sonohysteroscopy detects intracavitary abnormalities such as endometrial polyps or uterine leiomyoma and is less expensive and invasive than hysteroscopy. Endometrial biopsy is effective for diagnosing precancerous lesions and adenocarcinoma but not for intracavitary lesions. Except for continuous progestin, medical therapies are limited. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device is an effective therapy for women who want to preserve fertility and avoid surgery. Surgical therapies include endometrial ablation methods that preserve the uterus; and hysterectomy, which results in high satisfaction rates but with potential surgical morbidity. Overall, hysterectomy and endometrial ablation result in the greatest satisfaction rates if future childbearing is not desired. Treatment of menorrhagia results in substantial improvement in quality of life.