ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Dermatomyositis - Article
ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic skin manifestations. Although the disorder is rare, with a prevalence of one to 10 cases per million in adults and one to 3.2 cases per million in children, early recognition and treatment are important ways to decrease the morbidity of systemic complications. An association with other connective tissue disorders (overlap syndrome) and malignancy make this diagnosis particularly important to primary care physicians. Patient management includes careful evaluation for underlying malignancy and liberal use of physical therapy, antihistamines, sunscreen and oral corticosteroids. Poor prognostic indicators include poorly responsive disease, delay in diagnosis and the presence of malignancy. The therapeutic goal is to maintain function and prevent or minimize sequelae.
ABSTRACT: Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 1.9 percent of reported pregnancies. The condition is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. If a woman of reproductive age presents with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, syncope, or hypotension, the physician should perform a pregnancy test. If the patient is pregnant, the physician should perform a work-up to detect possible ectopic or ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Prompt ultrasound evaluation is key in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. Equivocal ultrasound results should be combined with quantitative beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels. If a patient has a beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin level of 1,500 mIU per mL or greater, but the transvaginal ultrasonography does not show an intrauterine gestational sac, ectopic pregnancy should be suspected. Diagnostic uterine curettage may be appropriate in patients who are hemodynamically stable and whose beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels are not increasing as expected. Appropriate treatment for patients with nonruptured ectopic pregnancy may include expectant management, medical management with methotrexate, or surgery. Expectant management is appropriate only when beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels are low and declining. Initial levels determine the success of medical treatment. Surgical treatment is appropriate if ruptured ectopic pregnancy is suspected and if the patient is hemodynamically unstable.
First Trimester Bleeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester occurs in about one fourth of pregnancies. About one half of those who bleed will miscarry. Guarded reassurance and watchful waiting are appropriate if fetal heart sounds are detected, if the patient is medically stable, and if there is no adnexal mass or clinical sign of intraperitoneal bleeding. Discriminatory criteria using transvaginal ultrasonography and beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin testing aid in distinguishing among the many conditions of first trimester bleeding. Possible causes of bleeding include subchorionic hemorrhage, embryonic demise, anembryonic pregnancy, incomplete abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic disease. When beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin reaches levels of 1,500 to 2,000 mIU per mL (1,500 to 2,000 IU per L), a normal pregnancy should exhibit a gestational sac by transvaginal ultrasonography. When the gestational sac is greater than 10 mm in diameter, a yolk sac must be present. A live embryo must exhibit cardiac activity when the crown-rump length is greater than 5 mm. In a normal pregnancy, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin levels increase by 80 percent every 48 hours. The absence of any normal discriminatory findings is consistent with early pregnancy failure, but does not distinguish between ectopic pregnancy and failed intrauterine pregnancy. The presence of an adnexal mass or free pelvic fluid represents ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise. Medical management with misoprostol is highly effective for early intrauterine pregnancy failure with the exception of gestational trophoblastic disease, which must be surgically evacuated. Expectant treatment is effective for many patients with incomplete abortion. Medical management with methotrexate is highly effective for properly selected patients with ectopic pregnancy. Follow-up after early pregnancy loss should include attention to future pregnancy planning, contraception, and psychological aspects of care.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Cutaneous Manifestation of a Systemic Disease - Photo Quiz
Medical Methods for First-Trimester Abortion - Cochrane for Clinicians
Adalimumab for Rheumatoid Arthritis? - Cochrane for Clinicians
ACOG Issues Report on the Medical Management of Tubal Pregnancy - Special Medical Reports
Systemic Vasculitis - Article
ABSTRACT: The systemic vasculitides are characterized by inflammation of blood vessel walls. Vessels of any type, in any organ can be affected, resulting in a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. The heterogenous nature of vasculitides presents a diagnostic challenge. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature are the most widely used to distinguish different forms of vasculitis. The Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature defines 10 primary vasculitides based on vessel size (large, medium, and small). The diagnosis relies on the recognition of a compatible clinical presentation supported by specific laboratory or imaging tests and confirmatory histology. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody testing has been of particular benefit in defining a subgroup of small vessel vasculitides. Treatment is based on clinical presentation and the pattern of organ involvement. Glucocorticoids are the primary treatment for many forms of vasculitis. Additional immunosuppressive agents, including methotrexate and cyclophosphamide, are sometimes required. Newer approaches, such as the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor or B cell therapies, are being tried in resistant cases. Patients can experience considerable treatment-related toxicity, especially infection from immunosuppressive therapy and adverse effects from steroids (e.g., osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, cataract). Vitamin D and calcium prophylaxis are recommended in patients on long-term steroid therapy.