Items in AFP with MESH term: Mouth Diseases
ABSTRACT: Common superficial oral lesions include candidiasis, recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, erythema migrans, hairy tongue, and lichen planus. Recognition and diagnosis require taking a thorough history and performing a complete oral examination. Knowledge of clinical characteristics such as size, location, surface morphology, color, pain, and duration is helpful in establishing a diagnosis. Oral candidiasis may present as pseudomembranous candidiasis, glossitis, or perlÃ¨che (angular cheilitis). Oral candidiasis is common in infants, but in adults it may signify immune deficiency or other illness. Herpes labialis typically is a mild, self-limited condition. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis most often is a mild condition; however, severe cases may be caused by nutritional deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Erythema migrans is a waxing and waning disorder of unknown etiology. Hairy tongue represents elongation and hypertrophy of the filiform papillae and most often occurs in persons who smoke heavily. Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory condition that may be reticular or erosive. Certain risk factors have been associated with each of these lesions, such as poor oral hygiene, age, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption, and some systemic conditions may have oral manifestations. Many recommended therapies for oral lesions are unsupported by randomized controlled trials.
Oral Health During Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.
Common Oral Conditions in Older Persons - Article
ABSTRACT: Older persons are at risk of chronic diseases of the mouth, including dental infections (e.g., caries, periodontitis), tooth loss, benign mucosal lesions, and oral cancer. Other common oral conditions in this population are xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral candidiasis, which may lead to acute pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush), erythematous lesions (denture stomatitis), or angular cheilitis. Xerostomia caused by underlying disease or medication use may be treated with over-the-counter saliva substitutes. Primary care physicians can help older patients maintain good oral health by assessing risk, recognizing normal versus abnormal changes of aging, performing a focused oral examination, and referring patients to a dentist, if needed. Patients with chronic, disabling medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, neurologic impairment) may benefit from oral health aids, such as electric toothbrushes, manual toothbrushes with wide-handle grips, and floss-holding devices.
Palatine Lesion in an Older Woman - Photo Quiz
Common Lesions on the Floor of the Mouth - Photo Quiz