Items in AFP with MESH term: Myocardial Infarction
ABSTRACT: Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in otherwise healthy persons. Persons who are depressed and who have pre-existing cardiovascular disease have a 3.5 times greater risk of death than patients who are not depressed and have cardiovascular disease. Physicians can assess patients for depression by using one of several easily administered and scored self-report inventories, including the SIG E CAPS + mood mnemonic. Cognitive-behavior therapy is the preferred psychologic treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants are the recommended pharmacologic treatment because of the relative absence of effects on the cardiovascular system. The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-behavior therapy is often the most effective treatment for depression in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Using ACE Inhibitors Appropriately - Article
ABSTRACT: When first introduced in 1981, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were indicated only for treatment of refractory hypertension. Since then, they have been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pathologies underlying these conditions are, in part, attributable to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensin II contributes to endothelial dysfunction. altered renal hemodynamics, and vascular and cardiac hypertrophy. ACE inhibitors attenuate these effects. Clinical outcomes of ACE inhibition include decreases in myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal), reinfarction, angina, stroke, end-stage renal disease, and morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. ACE inhibitors are generally well tolerated and have few contraindications. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:473.)
Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: The term 'acute coronary syndrome' encompasses a range of thrombotic coronary artery diseases, including unstable angina and both ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Diagnosis requires an electrocardiogram and a careful review for signs and symptoms of cardiac ischemia. In acute coronary syndrome, common electrocardiographic abnormalities include T-wave tenting or inversion, ST-segment elevation or depression (including J-point elevation in multiple leads), and pathologic Q waves. Risk stratification allows appropriate referral of patients to a chest pain center or emergency department, where cardiac enzyme levels can be assessed. Most high-risk patients should be hospitalized. Intermediate-risk patients should undergo a structured evaluation, often in a chest pain unit. Many low-risk patients can be discharged with appropriate follow-up. Troponin T or I generally is the most sensitive determinant of acute coronary syndrome, although the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase also is used. Early markers of acute ischemia include myoglobin and creatine kinase-MB subforms (or isoforms), when available. In the future, advanced diagnostic modalities, such as myocardial perfusion imaging, may have a role in reducing unnecessary hospitalizations.
ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood that predominantly affects the coronary arteries. The etiology of Kawasaki disease remains unknown, although an infectious agent is strongly suspected based on clinical and epidemiologic features. A genetic predisposition is also likely, based on varying incidences among ethnic groups, with higher rates in Asians. Symptoms include fever, conjunctival injection, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Some children with Kawasaki disease develop coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia, ischemic heart disease, and sudden death. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed countries. This article provides a summary of the diagnostic and treatment guidelines published by the American Heart Association.
ABSTRACT: Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions from each other, such as a diuretic decreasing edema occurring secondary to treatment with a calcium channel blocker. Most patients with hypertension require more than a single antihypertensive agent, particularly if they have comorbid conditions. Although the Joint National Committee guidelines recommend diuretic therapy as the initial pharmacologic agent for most patients with hypertension, the presence of "compelling indications" may prompt treatment with antihypertensive agents that demonstrate a particular benefit in primary or secondary prevention. Specific recommendations include treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, beta blockers, or aldosterone antagonists for hypertensive patients with heart failure. For hypertensive patients with diabetes, recommended treatment includes diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and/or calcium channel blockers. Recommended treatment for hypertensive patients with increased risk of coronary disease includes a diuretic, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and/or calcium channel blocker. The Joint National Committee guidelines recommend beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and aldosterone antagonists for hypertensive patients who are postmyocardial infarction; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers for hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease; and diuretic and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for recurrent stroke prevention in patients with hypertension.
ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family Physicians endorses and accepts this guideline as its policy. Early recognition and prompt initiation of reperfusion therapy remains the cornerstone of management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Aspirin should be given to symptomatic patients. Beta blockers should be used cautiously in the acute setting because they may increase the risk of cardiogenic shock and death. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated in patients who have had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A stepped care approach to analgesia for musculoskeletal pain in patients with coronary heart disease is provided. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase mortality risk and should be avoided. Primary prevention is important to reduce the burden of heart disease. Secondary prevention interventions are critically important to prevent recurrent events in patients who survive.
ABSTRACT: In patients without established cardiac disease, the occurrence of premature ventricular complexes without sustained ventricular tachycardia is more an annoyance than a medical risk, and treatment is not required. In contrast, patients with established heart disease and premature ventricular complexes have a higher likelihood of developing ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. These patients should be treated with a beta blocker or class I antiarrhythmic drug. Treatment of arrhythmias in pregnant women is rarely needed. When treatment is required, amiodarone should be avoided, and beta blockers should be used with caution, because these agents have been associated with fetal growth retardation. The most important rhythm abnormality in athletes is ventricular tachycardia associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. If the presence of the disease is confirmed by echocardiography, beta-blocker therapy is necessary, and these patients should be limited to participation in nonstrenuous sports. Acute arrhythmias in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be treated with adenosine. Radiofrequency ablation of the accessory pathway can provide long-term control.
ABSTRACT: Each year, more than 1 million patients are admitted to U.S. hospitals because of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI). To help standardize the assessment and treatment of these patients, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association convened a task force to formulate a management guideline. This guideline, which was published in 2000 and updated in 2002, highlights recent medical advances and is a practical tool to help physicians provide medical care for patients with UA/NSTEMI. Management of suspected UA/NSTEMI has four components: initial evaluation and management; hospital care; coronary revascularization; and hospital discharge and post-hospital care. Part I of this two-part article discusses the first two components of management. During the initial evaluation, the history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and cardiac biomarkers are used to determine the likelihood that the patient has UA/NSTEMI and to aid in risk assessment when the diagnosis is established. Hospital care consists of appropriate initial triage and monitoring. Medical treatment includes anti-ischemic therapy (oxygen, nitroglycerin, beta blocker), antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor), and antithrombotic therapy (heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin).
Heparins for Unstable Angina and Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: In the guideline developed by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, the management of suspected unstable angina and non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) has four components: initial evaluation and management; hospital care; coronary revascularization; and hospital discharge and post-hospital care. Part II of this two-part article discusses coronary revascularization, hospital discharge, and post-hospital care. Decisions must be made about the use of coronary angiography and coronary revascularization in patients hospitalized with UA/NSTEMI. With an early conservative strategy, medical management is employed. Coronary angiography and revascularization are reserved for use in patients with evidence of ischemia at rest (or with minimal activity) and patients with a strongly positive stress test. With an early invasive strategy, coronary angiography and revascularization are recommended within 48 hours in patients without contraindications. Hospital discharge planning involves coordination of medical care, preparation of the patient for resumption of normal activities, and evaluation of the need for long-term risk factor reduction. Discharge medications should be continued to control ongoing symptoms (anti-ischemic agents) and prevent recurrent events (aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blocker, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or statins in selected patients).