ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
NSAIDs Alone or with Opioids as Therapy for Cancer Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians
Determining Prognosis for Patients with Terminal Cancer - Point-of-Care Guides
Opioids for Management of Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients - Cochrane for Clinicians
Health Effects of Garlic - Article
ABSTRACT: Garlic has long been used medicinally, most recently for its cardiovascular, antineoplastic, and antimicrobial properties. Sulfur compounds, including allicin, appear to be the active components in the root bulb of the garlic plant. Studies show significant but modest lipid-lowering effects and antiplatelet activity. Significant blood pressure reduction is not consistently noted. There is some evidence for antineoplastic activity and insufficient evidence for clinical antimicrobial activity. Side effects generally are mild and uncommon. Garlic appears to have no effect on drug metabolism, but patients taking anticoagulants should be cautious. It seems prudent to stop taking high dosages of garlic seven to 10 days before surgery because garlic can prolong bleeding time.
Anticoagulation for the Long-term Treatment of VTE in Patients with Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: N-acetylcysteine is the acetylated variant of the amino acid L-cysteine and is widely used as the specific antidote for acetaminophen overdose. Other applications for N-acetylcysteine supplementation supported by scientific evidence include prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, prevention of contrast-induced kidney damage during imaging procedures, attenuation of illness from the influenza virus when started before infection, treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, and treatment of infertility in patients with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Preliminary studies suggest that N-acetylcysteine may also have a role as a cancer chemopreventive, an adjunct in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, and prophylaxis of gentamicin-induced hearing loss in patients on renal dialysis.
ABSTRACT: There are approximately 300,000 survivors of childhood cancer in the United States, and most of them receive their medical care from primary care physicians. Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at considerable risk of long-term morbidity and mortality beyond the recurrence of their primary malignancy. Late adverse effects can impair organ function, stunt growth and development, and cause neurocognitive dysfunction and secondary malignancies. To address the need for systematic, comprehensive care of this expanding high-risk patient population, the Children’s Oncology Group has developed long-term follow-up guidelines. Proper use of these guidelines will allow primary care physicians to understand a patient’s individual risk, provide additional screening as needed, and identify late adverse effects of childhood cancer early. The foundation of the care of an adult survivor of a childhood cancer is a complete, accurate account of the patient’s cancer and subsequent therapy in the form of a Summary of Cancer Treatment. A complete Summary of Cancer Treatment allows a primary care physician to use the longterm follow-up guidelines to create an individualized care plan. This article will review the late adverse effects of childhood cancer therapy and the transition of patients from pediatric oncologists to physicians in adulthood, and explain how primary care physicians can use these tools to provide appropriate care to adult survivors of childhood cancer.
ABSTRACT: Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively.
Use of Hospice Care for Patients Without Cancer - Editorials