ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Newborn Skin: Part II. Birthmarks - Article
ABSTRACT: Birthmarks in newborns are common sources of parental concern. Although most treatment recommendations are based on expert opinion, limited evidence exists to guide management of these conditions. Large congenital melanocytic nevi require evaluation for removal, whereas smaller nevi may be observed for malignant changes. With few exceptions, benign birthmarks (e.g., dermal melanosis, hemangioma of infancy, port-wine stain, nevus simplex) do not require treatment; however, effective cosmetic laser treatments exist. Supernumerary nipples are common and benign; they are occasionally mistaken for congenital melanocytic nevi. High- and intermediate-risk skin markers of spinal dysraphism (e.g., dermal sinuses, tails, atypical dimples, multiple lesions of any type) require evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. Family physicians should be familiar with various birthmarks and comfortable discussing disease prevention and cosmetic strategies.
Atypical Moles - Article
ABSTRACT: Atypical moles can be distinguished visually by clinical features of size greater than 6 mm in diameter, color variegation, indistinct borders, and textured surface. All patients who have atypical moles should be counselled about sun avoidance, screening of family members, and regular skin checks at least once per year. Total body photography and dermoscopy can aid in regular skin monitoring for changes in atypical moles and the emergence of new lesions. The presence of multiple atypical moles increases the risk of melanoma. The greatest risk of melanoma is in patients who have more than 50 atypical moles and two or more family members with melanoma (familial atypical mole and melanoma syndrome). Atypical moles should be removed when they have features suggestive of malignant transformation. Elliptical excision is the preferred removal technique. Removing all atypical moles is neither necessary nor cost effective.
Common Hyperpigmentation Disorders in Adults: Part II. Melanoma, Seborrheic Keratoses, Acanthosis Nigricans, Melasma, Diabetic Dermopathy, Tinea Versicolor, and Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation - Article
ABSTRACT: Nevi, or moles, are localized nevocytic tumors. The American Cancer Society's “ABCD” rules are useful for differentiating a benign nevus from malignant melanoma. While acanthosis nigricans may signal an underlying malignancy (e.g., gastrointestinal tumor), it more often is associated with insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome) or obesity. Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation resulting from the stimulation of melanocytes by endogenous or exogenous estrogen. Treatments for melasma include bleaching agents, laser therapy, and a new medication that combines hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide. Lesions that develop on the shins of patients with diabetic dermopathy often resolve spontaneously; no treatment is effective or recommended. Tinea versicolor responds to treatment with selenium sulfide shampoo and topical or oral antifungal agents. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation can occur in persons of any age after trauma, skin irritation, or dermatoses.
Yellowish, Verrucous Lesions on the Scalp - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Cutaneous vascular lesions are the most common pediatric birthmarks. Flat vascular malformations tend to persist, but raised vascular lesions, known as hemangiomas, generally involute. Although not always necessary, treatment of flat lesions, if desired, is best accomplished with flash-lamp pumped pulsed dye laser. Therapy of hemangiomas varies depending on the presence of associated symptoms or syndromes. Specifically, hemangiomas that are likely to lead to loss of function or life ( e.g. lesions of internal organs, lesions associated with coagulopathy) should be treated promptly. Treatment may also be required for hemangiomas that are likely to lead to scarring when the lesion involutes, such as hemangiomas of the nose and lip. The natural history of hemangiomas includes proliferative, stationary and involutional phases. Many superficial hemangiomas resolve with minimal sequelae.
White Patch on Back - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: In addressing the problem of malignant melanoma, family physicians should emphasize primary prevention. This includes educating patients about the importance of avoiding excessive sun exposure and preventing sunburns, and advising them about the importance of prompt self-referral for changing nevi. Family physicians should be able to perform an overall risk assessment for melanoma, particularly to identify persons with familial atypical mole syndrome. Patients with such high risk should be strongly considered for referral for dermatologic surveillance. Because there are no systematic studies in primary care populations, there are no data on which to base recommendations for periodic screening in this setting. However, when performing any part of the physical examination, family physicians should be alert for suspicious nevi. Nevi detected by the family physician or pointed out by the patient should be subject to excisional biopsy with accepted techniques or be referred for such a procedure.
Linear Lesions in a Neonate - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: Cutaneous malignant melanoma accounts for 3 to 5 percent of all skin cancers and is responsible for approximately 75 percent of all deaths from skin cancer. Persons with an increased number of moles, dysplastic (also called atypical) nevi, or a family history of the disease are at increased risk compared with the general population. An important tool to assist in the evaluation of potential melanomas for patients and health care professionals is the ABCDE mnemonic, which takes into account asymmetry, border irregularities, color variation, diameter, and evolution. Any suspicious pigmented lesion should be biopsied. Appropriate methods of biopsy can vary, and include deep shave, punch, and excisional biopsy. Regardless of the procedure selected, it is essential that the size of the specimen be adequate to determine the histologic depth of lesion penetration, which is known as the Breslow depth. The Breslow depth is the most important prognostic parameter in evaluating the primary tumor. Because early detection and treatment can lead to identification of thinner lesions, which may increase survival, it is critical that physicians be comfortable with evaluating suspicious pigmented lesions and providing treatment or referral as necessary.