Items in AFP with MESH term: Obesity
Drug Therapy for Obesity - Article
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a common health problem in the United States, and effective treatment is challenging. Obesity is associated with an increased mortality rate and risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Numerous treatments are available for obesity. Behavioral therapy, surgery and pharmacologic treatment have been used with varying degrees of success. Older anorectic agents have significant side effects and limited benefit, and some have even been withdrawn from the U.S. market because of a possible association with cardiovascular complications. The safety of newer agents must be extensively evaluated before widespread use is recommended. Therefore, behavioral therapy, including regular exercise and the development of healthy eating habits, continues to be the best treatment for long-term weight loss.
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic disease that affects a substantial number of Americans. Obesity significantly increases a person's risk of cardiovascular diseases and morbidity. Modification of lifestyle behaviors that contribute to obesity (e.g., inappropriate diet and inactivity) is the cornerstone of treatment. Behavior modification involves using such techniques as self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management and social support to systematically alter obesity-related behaviors. In addition, adjunctive pharmacotherapy can play an important role in the routine medical management of obesity.
Medical Management of Obesity - Article
ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the most common medical problems in the United States and a risk factor for illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, degenerative arthritis and myocardial infarction. It is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and generates great social and financial costs. Obesity is defined as a body mass index greater than 30. Many patients accomplish weight loss with diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. Others require more aggressive therapy. Weight loss medications may be appropriate for use in selected patients who meet the definition of obesity or who are overweight with comorbid conditions. Medications are formulated to reduce energy intake, increase energy output or decrease the absorption of nutrients. Drugs cannot replace diet, exercise and lifestyle modification, which remain the cornerstones of obesity treatment. Two new agents, sibutramine and orlistat, exhibit novel mechanisms of action and avoid some of the side effects that occurred with earlier drugs. Sibutramine acts to block uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, while orlistat decreases fat absorption in the intestines.
Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents - Putting Prevention into Practice
ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery procedures, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, result in an average weight loss of 50 percent of excess body weight. Remission of diabetes mellitus occurs in approximately 80 percent of patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Other obesity-related comorbidities are greatly reduced, and health-related quality of life improves. The Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score can help identify patients with increased mortality risk from bariatric surgery. Complications and adverse effects are lowest with laparoscopic surgery, and vary by procedure and presurgical risk. The Roux-en-Y procedure carries an increased risk of malabsorption sequelae, which can be minimized with standard nutritional supplementation. Outcomes are also influenced by the experience of the surgeon and surgical facility. Overall, these procedures have a mortality risk of less than 0.5 percent. Although there have been no long-term randomized controlled trials, existing studies show that bariatric surgery has a beneficial effect on mortality. The family physician is well positioned to care for obese patients by discussing surgery as an option for long-term weight loss. Counseling about the procedure options, risks and benefits of surgery, and the potential reduction in comorbid conditions is important. Patient selection, presurgical risk reduction, and postsurgical medical management, with nutrition and exercise support, are valuable roles for the family physician.
Secondary Causes of Obesity - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Interventions following a transient ischemic attack are aimed at preventing a future episode or stroke. Hypertension, current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are all well-known risk factors, and controlling these factors can have dramatic effects on transient ischemic attack and stroke risk. For patients presenting within 48 hours of resolution of transient ischemic attack symptoms, advantages of hospital admission include rapid diagnostic evaluation and early intervention to reduce the risk of stroke. For long-term prevention of future stroke, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends antiplatelet agents, statins, and carotid artery intervention for advanced stenosis. Aspirin, extended-release dipyridamole/aspirin, and clopidogrel are acceptable first-line antiplatelet agents. Statins have also been shown to reduce the risk of stroke following transient ischemic attack, with maximal benefit occurring with at least a 50 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or a target of less than 70 mg per dL (1.81 mmol per L). For those with transient ischemic attack and carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy is recommended if stenosis is 70 to 99 percent, and perioperative morbidity and mortality are estimated to be less than 6 percent.
Obesity in Pregnancy - Editorials
Metformin Use in Adolescents - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries