Items in AFP with MESH term: Obstetrics
ABSTRACT: Vacuum extractors have replaced forceps for many situations in which assistance is required to achieve vaginal delivery. Compared with metal-cup vacuum extractors, soft-cup devices are easier to use and cause fewer neonatal scalp injuries; however, they detach more frequently. Vacuum extractors can cause neonatal injury. These devices should be employed when indicated, usually for a nonreassuring fetal heart tracing or failure to progress in the second stage of labor. Complications may be minimized if the physician recognizes contraindications to the use of vacuum extraction. Complete documentation is essential.
ABSTRACT: Appropriate management of pregnant patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease can have a major impact on maternal and infant health. The goals of therapy are to properly manage the pregnancy, treat the maternal HIV infection and minimize the risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Early detection of HIV through aggressive screening programs is necessary to initiate timely therapy. Zidovudine therapy given antepartum and intrapartum to the mother and after birth to the newborn has been shown to decrease the risk of vertical transmission. Evidence suggests that more aggressive antiretroviral therapy for the mother, which allows suppression of viral loads to undetectable levels, may be safe and may provide significant additional benefits. However, treatment needs to be individualized, weighing the possible teratogenic risks against the benefits of decreased transmission. Multiple prospective cohort studies support elective cesarean section as an additional means to decrease vertical transmission, but its role in relation to other therapies has not been determined. As in nonpregnant patients infected with HIV, prevention of opportunistic infections and adequate psychosocial support are essential.
ACOG Releases Guidelines on Management of Adnexal Masses - Practice Guidelines
Balancing a Personal Life With OB Care - The Last Word
ACOG Releases Report on Dystocia and Augmentation of Labor - Practice Guidelines
The ALSO Article Series - Editorials
Number of Persons Who Consulted a Physician, 1997 and 2002 - Graham Center Policy One-Pagers
ACOG Issues Report on Management of Operative Injuries of the Urinary Tract - Special Medical Reports
ACOG Issues Report on Sexual Assault - Special Medical Reports
Cultural Aspects of Caring for Refugees - Medicine and Society