ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Testicular Masses - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians often must evaluate patients with testicular pain or masses. The incidental finding of a scrotal mass may also require evaluation. Patients may seek evaluation of a scrotal mass as an incidental finding. An accurate history combined with a complete examination of the male external genitalia will help indicate a preliminary diagnosis and proper treatment. Family physicians must keep in mind the emergency or "must not miss" diagnoses associated with testicular masses, including testicular torsion, epididymitis, acute orchitis, strangulated hernia and testicular cancer. Referral to a urologist should be made immediately if one of these diagnoses is suspected. Benign causes of scrotal masses, including hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele, may be diagnosed and managed easily in the primary care office.
Epididymitis and Orchitis: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Epididymitis and orchitis are commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Men between 14 and 35 years of age are most often affected, and Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common pathogens in this age group. In other age groups, coliform bacteria are the primary pathogens. Men with epididymitis and orchitis typically present with a gradual onset of scrotal pain and symptoms of lower urinary tract infection, including fever. This presentation helps differentiate epididymitis and orchitis from testicular torsion, which is a surgical emergency. Typical physical findings include a swollen, tender epididymis or testis located in the normal anatomic position with an intact ipsilateral cremasteric reflex. Laboratory studies, including urethral Gram stain, urinalysis and culture, and polymerase chain reaction assay for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, help guide therapy. Initial outpatient therapy is empirical and targets the most common pathogens. When C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae are suspected, ceftriaxone and doxycycline are recommended. When coliform bacteria are suspected, ofloxacin or levofloxacin is recommended.
ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, which is responsible for more than 1 million infections annually. Most persons with this infection are asymptomatic. Untreated infection can result in serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women, and epididymitis and orchitis in men. Men and women can experience chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Treatment of uncomplicated cases should include azithromycin or doxycycline. Screening is recommended in all women younger than 25 years, in all pregnant women, and in women who are at increased risk of infection. Screening is not currently recommended in men. In neonates and infants, the bacterium can cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. Adults may also experience conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia. Trachoma is a recurrent ocular infection caused by chlamydia and is endemic in the developing world.