ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
ABSTRACT: Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.
ABSTRACT: Patients with metatarsal fractures often present to primary care settings. Initial evaluation should focus on identifying any conditions that require emergent referral, such as neurovascular compromise and open fractures. The fracture should then be characterized and treatment initiated. Referral is generally indicated for intra-articular or displaced metatarsal fractures, as well as most fractures that involve the first metatarsal or multiple metatarsals. If the midfoot is injured, care should be taken to evaluate the Lisfranc ligament. Injuries to this ligament require referral or specific treatment based on severity. Nondisplaced fractures of the metatarsal shaft usually require only a soft dressing followed by a firm, supportive shoe and progressive weight bearing. Stress fractures of the first to fourth metatarsal shafts typically heal well with rest alone and usually do not require immobilization. Avulsion fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal tuberosity can usually be managed with a soft dressing. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures that are distal to the tuberosity have a poorer prognosis. Radiographs should be carefully examined to distinguish these fractures from tuberosity fractures. Treatment of fractures distal to the tuberosity should be individualized based on the characteristics of the fracture and patient preference. Nondisplaced fractures of the proximal portion of metatarsals 1 through 4 can be managed acutely with a posterior splint followed by a molded, non-weight-bearing, short leg cast. If radiography reveals a normal position seven to 10 days after injury, progressive weight bearing may be started, and the cast may be removed three to four weeks later.