Items in AFP with MESH term: Lice Infestations
Pediculosis and Scabies - Article
ABSTRACT: Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites; patients usually present with itching. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by the visualization of insects or viable nits (eggs). Primary treatment is topically administered 1 percent permethrin. Malathion is one alternative for treatment failures. The importance of environmental measures to prevent infestation is a matter of controversy. Pubic lice are treated the same as head lice, but this finding should prompt evaluation for other sexually transmitted diseases. Body lice infestation should be suspected when symptoms of generalized itching occur in persons who do not change or wash their clothing or bedding regularly; lice may be found in the seams of their clothing. Topically administered permethrin may help to eradicate body lice, but personal hygiene measures are essential for successful treatment. Classic scabies in adults can be recognized by a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations; in infants, small children, and the immunocompromised, the rash may include vesicles, pustules, or nodules. Primary treatment for scabies is permethrin cream and environmental measures are important to prevent recurrent infestation. Generalized crusted scabies is best treated with oral ivermectin.
AAP Releases Clinical Report on Head Lice - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A “no nit” policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer.