ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Newborn infants may be transferred to a special care nursery because of conditions such as prematurity (gestation less than 37 weeks), prolonged resuscitation, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and jaundice, and for evaluation of neonatal sepsis. Newborn infants' core temperature should be kept above 36.4 degrees C (97.5 degrees F). Nutritional requirements are usually 100 to 120 kcal per kg per day to achieve an average weight gain of 150 to 200 g (5 to 7 oz) per week. Standard infant formulas containing 20 kcal per mL and maternal breast milk may be inadequate for premature infants, who require special formulas or fortifiers that provide a higher calorie content (up to 24 kcal per mL). Intravenous fluids should be given when infants are not being fed enterally, such as those with tachypnea greater than 60 breaths per minute. Hypoglycemia can be asymptomatic in large-for-gestational-age infants and infants of mothers who have diabetes. A hyperoxia test can be used to differentiate between pulmonary and cardiac causes of hypoxemia. The potential for neonatal sepsis increases with the presence of risk factors such as prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal colonization with group B streptococcus. Jaundice, especially on the first day of life, should be evaluated and treated. If the infant does not progressively improve in the special care nursery, transfer to a tertiary care unit may be necessary.
Hyperbilirubinemia in the Term Newborn - Article
ABSTRACT: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common problems encountered in term newborns. Historically, management guidelines were derived from studies on bilirubin toxicity in infants with hemolytic disease. More recent recommendations support the use of less intensive therapy in healthy term newborns with jaundice. Phototherapy should be instituted when the total serum bilirubin level is at or above 15 mg per dL (257 micromol per L) in infants 25 to 48 hours old, 18 mg per dL (308 micromol per L) in infants 49 to 72 hours old, and 20 mg per dL (342 micromol per L) in infants older than 72 hours. Few term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia have serious underlying pathology. Jaundice is considered pathologic if it presents within the first 24 hours after birth, the total serum bilirubin level rises by more than 5 mg per dL (86 micromol per L) per day or is higher than 17 mg per dL (290 micromol per L), or an infant has signs and symptoms suggestive of serious illness. The management goals are to exclude pathologic causes of hyperbilirubinemia and initiate treatment to prevent bilirubin neurotoxicity.
Seasonal Affective Disorder - Article
ABSTRACT: Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice.
ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is a common, potentially debilitating condition that can compromise quality of life. Its most frequent symptom is pruritus. Attempts to relieve the itch by scratching simply worsen the rash, creating a vicious circle. Treatment should be directed at limiting itching, repairing the skin and decreasing inflammation when necessary. Lubricants, antihistamines and topical corticosteroids are the mainstays of therapy. When required, oral corticosteroids can be used. If pruritus does not respond to treatment, other diagnoses, such as bacterial overgrowth or viral infections, should be considered. Treatment options are available for refractory atopic dermatitis, but these measures should be reserved for use in unique situations and typically require consultation with a dermatologist or an allergist.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Lichen Planus - Article
ABSTRACT: Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that affects the skin, oral mucosa, genital mucosa, scalp, and nails. Lichen planus lesions are described using the six P’s (planar [flat-topped], purple, polygonal, pruritic, papules, plaques). Onset is usually acute, affecting the flexor surfaces of the wrists, forearms, and legs. The lesions are often covered by lacy, reticular, white lines known as Wickham striae. Classic cases of lichen planus may be diagnosed clinically, but a 4-mm punch biopsy is often helpful and is required for more atypical cases. High-potency topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for all forms of lichen planus, including cutaneous, genital, and mucosal erosive lesions. In addition to clobetasol, topical tacrolimus appears to be an effective treatment for vulvovaginal lichen planus. Topical corticosteroids are also first-line therapy for mucosal erosive lichen planus. Systemic corticosteroids should be considered for severe, widespread lichen planus involving oral, cutaneous, or genital sites. Referral to a dermatologist for systemic therapy with acitretin (an expensive and toxic oral retinoid) or an oral immunosuppressant should be considered for patients with severe lichen planus that does not respond to topical treatment. Lichen planus may resolve spontaneously within one to two years, although recurrences are common. However, lichen planus on mucous membranes may be more persistent and resistant to treatment.
Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended. The primary pharmacologic treatment is topical corticosteroids. Twice-daily or more frequent application has not been shown to be more effective than once-daily application. A maintenance regimen of topical corticosteroids may reduce relapse rates in patients who have recurrent moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are recommended as second-line treatment for persons with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and who are at risk of atrophy from topical corticosteroids. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning about a possible link between these medications and skin malignancies and lymphoma, studies have not demonstrated a clear link. Topical and oral antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections, but are not effective in preventing atopic dermatitis flare-ups. The effectiveness of alternative therapies, such as Chinese herbal preparations, homeopathy, hypnotherapy/biofeedback, and massage therapy, has not been established.
Psoriasis - Article
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is often associated with systemic manifestations. It affects about 2 percent of U.S. adults, and can significantly impact quality of life. The etiology includes genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis is based on the typical erythematous, scaly skin lesions, often with additional manifestations in the nails and joints. Plaque psoriasis is the most common form. Atypical forms include guttate, pustular, erythrodermic, and inverse psoriasis. Psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, lymphoma, and depression. Topical therapies such as corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, and tazarotene are useful for treating mild to moderate psoriasis. More severe psoriasis may be treated with phototherapy, or may require systemic therapy. Biologic therapies, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, can be effective for severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, but have significant adverse effect profiles and require regular monitoring. Management of psoriasis must be individualized and may involve combinations of different medications and phototherapy.
Seasonal Affective Disorder - Article
ABSTRACT: Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.