ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Late Pregnancy Bleeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Effective management of vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy requires recognition of potentially serious conditions, including placenta previa, placental abruption, and vasa previa. Placenta previa is commonly diagnosed on routine ultrasonography before 20 weeks' gestation, but in nearly 90 percent of patients it ultimately resolves. Women who have asymptomatic previa can continue normal activities, with repeat ultrasonographic evaluation at 28 weeks. Persistent previa in the third trimester mandates pelvic rest and hospitalization if significant bleeding occurs. Placental abruption is the most common cause of serious vaginal bleeding, occurring in 1 percent of pregnancies. Management of abruption may require rapid operative delivery to prevent neonatal morbidity and mortality. Vasa previa is rare but can result in fetal exsanguination with rupture of membranes. Significant vaginal bleeding from any cause is managed with rapid assessment of maternal and fetal status, fluid resuscitation, replacement of blood products when necessary, and an appropriately timed delivery.
Examination of the Placenta - Article
ABSTRACT: A one-minute examination of the placenta performed in the delivery room provides information that may be important to the care of both mother and infant. The findings of this assessment should be documented in the delivery records. During the examination, the size, shape, consistency and completeness of the placenta should be determined, and the presence of accessory lobes, placental infarcts, hemorrhage, tumors and nodules should be noted. The umbilical cord should be assessed for length, insertion, number of vessels, thromboses, knots and the presence of Wharton's jelly. The color, luster and odor of the fetal membranes should be evaluated, and the membranes should be examined for the presence of large (velamentous) vessels. Tissue may be retained because of abnormal lobation of the placenta or because of placenta accreta, placenta increta or placenta percreta. Numerous common and uncommon findings of the placenta, umbilical cord and membranes are associated with abnormal fetal development and perinatal morbidity. The placenta should be submitted for pathologic evaluation if an abnormality is detected or certain indications are present.