ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
ABSTRACT: Each year, more than 1 million patients are admitted to U.S. hospitals because of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI). To help standardize the assessment and treatment of these patients, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association convened a task force to formulate a management guideline. This guideline, which was published in 2000 and updated in 2002, highlights recent medical advances and is a practical tool to help physicians provide medical care for patients with UA/NSTEMI. Management of suspected UA/NSTEMI has four components: initial evaluation and management; hospital care; coronary revascularization; and hospital discharge and post-hospital care. Part I of this two-part article discusses the first two components of management. During the initial evaluation, the history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and cardiac biomarkers are used to determine the likelihood that the patient has UA/NSTEMI and to aid in risk assessment when the diagnosis is established. Hospital care consists of appropriate initial triage and monitoring. Medical treatment includes anti-ischemic therapy (oxygen, nitroglycerin, beta blocker), antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor), and antithrombotic therapy (heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin).
ABSTRACT: Clinical trials conducted during the past five years have yielded important results that have allowed us to refine our approach to stroke prevention. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension prevents stroke and is generally well tolerated. New antiplatelet agents (clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin plus high-dose dipyridamole) have been shown to be effective in reducing vascular events in survivors of ischemic stroke, although aspirin remains the mainstay of antiplatelet therapy for stroke prevention. Several clinical trials support the benefit of lipid-lowering agents ("statins") in reducing stroke. Warfarin reduces stroke for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Carotid endarterectomy is highly beneficial in reducing stroke for symptomatic patients with severe carotid stenosis (greater than 70 percent), but the benefit is less for symptomatic patients with a moderate degree of stenosis (50 to 69 percent) and for patients with asymptomatic carotid disease of any severity.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease occurs in about 18 percent of persons over 70 years of age. Usually, patients who have this disease present with intermittent claudication with pain in the calf, thigh or buttock that is elicited by exertion and relieved with a few minutes of rest. The disease may also present in a subacute or acute fashion. Symptoms of ischemic rest pain, ulceration or gangrene may be present at the most advanced stage of the disease. In most cases, the underlying etiology is atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. In caring for these patients, the primary care physician should focus on evaluation, risk factor modification and exercise. The physician should consider referral to a vascular subspecialist when symptoms progress or are severe. While the prognosis for the affected limb is quite good, patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease are at increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Therefore, treatment measures should address overall vascular health.
Oral Anticoagulants vs. Antiplatelet Therapy - Cochrane for Clinicians
Aspirin in Patients with Actue Ischemic Stroke - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family Physicians endorses and accepts this guideline as its policy. Early recognition and prompt initiation of reperfusion therapy remains the cornerstone of management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Aspirin should be given to symptomatic patients. Beta blockers should be used cautiously in the acute setting because they may increase the risk of cardiogenic shock and death. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated in patients who have had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A stepped care approach to analgesia for musculoskeletal pain in patients with coronary heart disease is provided. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase mortality risk and should be avoided. Primary prevention is important to reduce the burden of heart disease. Secondary prevention interventions are critically important to prevent recurrent events in patients who survive.
Drug-Eluting Coronary Artery Stents - Article
ABSTRACT: Many advances have been made in the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease during the past 30 years. Although balloon angioplasty alone is still performed, the use of coronary artery stents is much more common. Approximately 40 percent of patients treated with balloon angioplasty developed restenosis, and this was reduced to roughly 30 percent with the use of bare-metal stents. However, restenosis within the stent can occur and is difficult to treat. Drug-eluting stents were developed to lower the rate of restenosis, which now occurs in less than 10 percent of patients treated with these stents. There have been concerns about abrupt thrombosis within drug-eluting stents occurring late after their implantation, leading to acute myocardial infarction and death. Recent studies have alleviated, but not completely dispelled, these concerns. Strict adherence to dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine is required after stent placement, and the premature discontinuation of therapy is the most important risk factor for acute stent thrombosis. Adequate communication between cardiologists and primary care physicians is essential not only to avoid the premature discontinuation of therapy, but also to identify, before stent placement, those patients in whom prolonged antiplatelet therapy may be ill-advised. Elective surgery following stent placement should be delayed until the recommended course of dual antiplatelet therapy has been completed.
Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
An Aspirin a Day Keeps the MI Away (For Some) - Editorials