Items in AFP with MESH term: Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - Putting Prevention into Practice
Are Anticoagulants Better than Antiplatelet Agents for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Antiplatelet Therapy and Anticoagulation in Patients with Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases subsequent cardiac events, and improves quality of life. Options for secondary prevention include medical therapy and surgical revascularization in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention. Medical therapy focuses on comprehensive risk factor modification. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (including weight management, physical activity, tobacco cessation, and dietary modification) improve cardiac risk factors and are universally recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia reduces morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for persons with diabetes mellitus generally encourage glucose control, but current evidence has not shown reductions in mortality with intensive glucose management. Aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta blockers reduce recurrent cardiac events in patients after myocardial infarction. Surgical revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting is recommended for those with significant left main coronary artery stenosis, significant stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery, multivessel coronary disease, or disabling angina. Percutaneous coronary intervention may be considered in select patients with objective evidence of ischemia demonstrated by noninvasive testing.
Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Risk factors for stroke should be evaluated in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack. Blood pressure, lipid levels, and diabetes mellitus should be controlled. When applicable, smoking cessation and weight loss also are important. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy may help prevent stroke. Aspirin is the treatment of choice for stroke prevention in patients who do not require anticoagulation. Clopidogrel is an alternative therapy in patients who do not tolerate aspirin. Atrial fibrillation, a known cardioembolic source (confirmed thrombus), or a highly suspected cardioembolic source (e.g., recent large myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, mechanical valve, rheumatic mitral valve stenosis) are indications for anticoagulation.
Perioperative Antiplatelet Therapy - Article
ABSTRACT: Aspirin is recommended as a lifelong therapy that should never be interrupted for patients with cardiovascular disease. Clopidogrel therapy is mandatory for six weeks after placement of bare-metal stents, three to six months after myocardial infarction, and at least 12 months after placement of drug-eluting stents. Because of the hypercoagulable state induced by surgery, early withdrawal of antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease increases the risk of postoperative myocardial infarction and death five- to 10-fold in stented patients who are on continuous dual antiplatelet therapy. The shorter the time between revascularization and surgery, the higher the risk of adverse cardiac events. Elective surgery should be postponed beyond these periods, whereas vital, semiurgent, or urgent operations should be performed under continued dual antiplatelet therapy. The risk of surgical hemorrhage is increased approximately 20 percent by aspirin or clopidogrel alone, and 50 percent by dual antiplatelet therapy. The present clinical data suggest that the risk of a cardiovascular event when stopping antiplatelet agents preoperatively is higher than the risk of surgical bleeding when continuing these drugs, except during surgery in a closed space (e.g., intracranial, posterior eye chamber) or surgeries associated with massive bleeding and difficult hemostasis.
Effective Therapies for Intermittent Claudication - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, duodenal ulcers, and pathologic hypersecretory conditions. Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for appropriateness, drug-drug interactions, and the potential for adverse effects (e.g., hip fractures, cardiac events, iron deficiency, Clostridium difficile infection, pneumonia). Adults 65 years and older are more vulnerable to these adverse effects because of the higher prevalence of chronic diseases in this population. Proton pump inhibitors administered for stress ulcer prophylaxis should be discontinued after the patient is discharged from the intensive care unit unless other indications exist.
Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction - Article
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular complications are the most common cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive stress testing is rarely helpful in assessing risk, and for most patients there is no evidence that coronary revascularization provides more protection against perioperative cardiovascular events than optimal medical management. Patients likely to benefit from perioperative beta blockade include those with stable coronary artery disease and multiple cardiac risk factors. Perioperative beta blockers should be initiated weeks before surgery and titrated to heart rate and blood pressure targets. The balance of benefits and harms of perioperative beta-blocker therapy is much less favorable in patients with limited cardiac risk factors and when initiated in the acute preoperative period. Perioperative statin therapy is recommended for all patients undergoing vascular surgery. When prescribed for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, aspirin should be continued in the perioperative period.