Items in AFP with MESH term: Pneumonia
Significant FDA Approvals in 1999 - FDA Perspective
ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, duodenal ulcers, and pathologic hypersecretory conditions. Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for appropriateness, drug-drug interactions, and the potential for adverse effects (e.g., hip fractures, cardiac events, iron deficiency, Clostridium difficile infection, pneumonia). Adults 65 years and older are more vulnerable to these adverse effects because of the higher prevalence of chronic diseases in this population. Proton pump inhibitors administered for stress ulcer prophylaxis should be discontinued after the patient is discharged from the intensive care unit unless other indications exist.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children - Article
ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially serious infection in children and often results in hospitalization. The diagnosis can be based on the history and physical examination results in children with fever plus respiratory signs and symptoms. Chest radiography and rapid viral testing may be helpful when the diagnosis is unclear. The most likely etiology depends on the age of the child. Viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are most common in preschool-aged children, whereas Mycoplasma pneumoniae is common in older children. The decision to treat with antibiotics is challenging, especially with the increasing prevalence of viral and bacterial coinfections. Preschool-aged children with uncomplicated bacterial pneumonia should be treated with amoxicillin. Macrolides are first-line agents in older children. Immunization with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is important in reducing the severity of childhood pneumococcal infections.
ABSTRACT: Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further testing to rule in or out acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. The physician should consider patient characteristics and risk factors to help determine initial risk. Twelve-lead electrocardiography is typically the test of choice when looking for ST segment changes, new-onset left bundle branch block, presence of Q waves, and new-onset T wave inversions. For persons in whom the suspicion for ischemia is lower, other diagnoses to consider include chest wall pain/costochondritis (localized pain reproducible by palpation), gastroesophageal reflux disease (burning retrosternal pain, acid regurgitation, and a sour or bitter taste in the mouth), and panic disorder/anxiety state. Other less common but important diagnostic considerations include pneumonia (fever, egophony, and dullness to percussion), heart failure, pulmonary embolism (consider using the Wells criteria), acute pericarditis, and acute thoracic aortic dissection (acute chest or back pain with a pulse differential in the upper extremities). Persons with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome should be referred to the emergency department or hospital.