ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis are common, closely related vasculitic conditions that almost exclusively occur in patients older than 50 years. They may be manifestations of the same underlying disease and often coexist. Patients with polymyalgia rheumatica usually present with acute onset of stiffness and pain in the shoulder and pelvic musculature, which may be accompanied by fever, malaise, and weight loss. If untreated, polymyalgia rheumatica may result in significant disability. Giant cell arteritis may manifest as visual loss or diplopia, abnormalities of the temporal artery such as tenderness or decreased pulsation, jaw claudication, and new-onset headaches. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and temporal artery biopsy help make the diagnosis. Giant cell arteritis requires urgent diagnosis because without treatment it may lead to irreversible blindness. Patients with either condition also may have nonspecific symptoms. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for both conditions, with higher doses required for treatment of giant cell arteritis. Duration of corticosteroid therapy can be five years or longer before complete clinical remission is achieved. Monitoring for corticosteroid-associated side effects such as osteoporosis and diabetes, as well as for relapses and flare-ups, is key to chronic management. The prognosis for either condition, if treated, is good.
ABSTRACT: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determination is a commonly performed laboratory test with a time-honored role. However, the usefulness of this test has decreased as new methods of evaluating disease have been developed. The test remains helpful in the specific diagnosis of a few conditions, including temporal arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and, possibly, rheumatoid arthritis. It is useful in monitoring these conditions and may predict relapse in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Use of the ESR as a screening test to identify patients who have serious disease is not supported by the literature. Some studies suggest that the test may be useful as a "sickness index" in the elderly or as a screening tool for a few specific infections in certain settings. An extreme elevation of the ESR is strongly associated with serious underlying disease, most often infection, collagen vascular disease or metastatic malignancy. When an increased rate is encountered with no obvious clinical explanation, the physician should repeat the test after an appropriate interval rather than pursue an exhaustive search for occult disease.
ABSTRACT: Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica are closely related disorders that affect persons more than 50 years of age and cause substantial morbidity. Patients with giant cell arteritis typically have a localized headache, nonspecific systemic symptoms, temporal artery tenderness and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The diagnosis is confirmed by characteristic pathologic findings on temporal artery biopsy. Patients with polymyalgia rheumatica usually have similar nonspecific systemic symptoms, proximal muscle pain and stiffness, and an elevated ESR. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings. Both disorders are treated with corticosteroids: high dosages for giant cell arteritis (prednisone in a dosage of 40 to 60 mg per day) and lower dosages for polymyalgia rheumatica (prednisone in a dosage of 10 to 20 mg per day). Symptom relief in response to treatment is rapid and reinforces the diagnosis. After normalization of the ESR, the corticosteroid is tapered, with the patient monitored closely for symptom recurrence. Most patients require corticosteroid therapy for two to three years and experience one or more treatment complications.