ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Dermatomyositis - Article
ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic skin manifestations. Although the disorder is rare, with a prevalence of one to 10 cases per million in adults and one to 3.2 cases per million in children, early recognition and treatment are important ways to decrease the morbidity of systemic complications. An association with other connective tissue disorders (overlap syndrome) and malignancy make this diagnosis particularly important to primary care physicians. Patient management includes careful evaluation for underlying malignancy and liberal use of physical therapy, antihistamines, sunscreen and oral corticosteroids. Poor prognostic indicators include poorly responsive disease, delay in diagnosis and the presence of malignancy. The therapeutic goal is to maintain function and prevent or minimize sequelae.
Autoimmune Bullous Dermatoses: A Review - Article
ABSTRACT: Bullous dermatoses can be debilitating and possibly fatal. A selection of autoimmune blistering diseases, including pemphigus vulgaris, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis and linear IgA dermatosis are reviewed. Pemphigus vulgaris usually starts in the oral mucosa followed by blistering of the skin, which is often painful. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is associated with neoplasms, most commonly of lymphoid tissue, but also WaldenstrÃ¶m's macroglobulinemia, sarcomas, thymomas and Castleman's disease. Bullous pemphigoid is characterized by large, tense bullae, but may begin as an urticarial eruption. Cicatricial (scarring) pemphigoid presents with severe, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes with skin involvement in one third of patients focused around the head and upper trunk. Dermatitis herpetiformis is intensely pruritic and chronic, characterized by papulovesicles and urticarial wheals on the extensor surfaces in a grouped or herpetiform, symmetric distribution. Linear IgA dermatosis is clinically similar to dermatitis herpetiformis, but it is not associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy as is dermatitis herpetiformis.
ABSTRACT: Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis are common, closely related vasculitic conditions that almost exclusively occur in patients older than 50 years. They may be manifestations of the same underlying disease and often coexist. Patients with polymyalgia rheumatica usually present with acute onset of stiffness and pain in the shoulder and pelvic musculature, which may be accompanied by fever, malaise, and weight loss. If untreated, polymyalgia rheumatica may result in significant disability. Giant cell arteritis may manifest as visual loss or diplopia, abnormalities of the temporal artery such as tenderness or decreased pulsation, jaw claudication, and new-onset headaches. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and temporal artery biopsy help make the diagnosis. Giant cell arteritis requires urgent diagnosis because without treatment it may lead to irreversible blindness. Patients with either condition also may have nonspecific symptoms. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for both conditions, with higher doses required for treatment of giant cell arteritis. Duration of corticosteroid therapy can be five years or longer before complete clinical remission is achieved. Monitoring for corticosteroid-associated side effects such as osteoporosis and diabetes, as well as for relapses and flare-ups, is key to chronic management. The prognosis for either condition, if treated, is good.
Bell's Palsy: Diagnosis and Management - Article
ABSTRACT: Bell's palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. Affected patients develop unilateral facial paralysis over one to three days with forehead involvement and no other neurologic abnormalities. Symptoms typically peak in the first week and then gradually resolve over three weeks to three months. Bell's palsy is more common in patients with diabetes, and although it can affect persons of any age, incidence peaks in the 40s. Bell's palsy has been traditionally defined as idiopathic; however, one possible etiology is infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Laboratory evaluation, when indicated by history or risk factors, may include testing for diabetes mellitus and Lyme disease. A common short-term complication of Bell's palsy is incomplete eyelid closure with resultant dry eye. A less common long-term complication is permanent facial weakness with muscle contractures. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of patients will recover spontaneously; however, treatment with a seven-day course of acyclovir or valacyclovir and a tapering course of prednisone, initiated within three days of the onset of symptoms, is recommended to reduce the time to full recovery and increase the likelihood of complete recuperation.
Henoch-Schönlein Purpura - Article
ABSTRACT: Henoch-SchÃ¶nlein purpura is an acute, systemic, immune complex-mediated, leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It is characterized by a triad of palpable purpura (without thrombocytopenia), abdominal pain, and arthritis. Most patients have an antecedent upper respiratory illness. More than 90 percent of Henoch-SchÃ¶nlein purpura cases occur in children younger than 10 years; however, adults with this condition are more likely to experience complications than children. All patients with Henoch-SchÃ¶nlein purpura develop a purpuric rash, 75 percent develop arthritis, 60 to 65 percent develop abdominal pain, and 40 to 50 percent develop renal disease. Because Henoch-SchÃ¶nlein purpura spontaneously resolves in 94 percent of children and 89 percent of adults, supportive treatment is the primary intervention. Oral prednisone at 1 to 2 mg per kg daily for two weeks has been used to treat abdominal and joint symptoms. A meta-analysis found that corticosteroid use in children reduced the mean time to resolution of abdominal pain and decreased the odds of developing persistent renal disease. Early aggressive therapy with high-dose steroids plus immunosuppressants is recommended for patients with severe renal involvement. Long-term prognosis depends on the severity of renal involvement. End-stage renal disease occurs in 1 to 5 percent of patients.
Back Rash - Photo Quiz
Common Questions About Bell Palsy - Article
ABSTRACT: Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful.