ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Methamphetamine Abuse - Article
ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.
Ginger: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the more commonly used herbal supplements. Although often consumed for culinary purposes, it is taken by many patients to treat a variety of conditions. Ginger has been shown to be effective for pregnancy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. There is less evidence to support its use for motion sickness or other types of nausea and vomiting. Mixed results have been found in limited studies of ginger for the treatment of arthritis symptoms.
Recommendations for Preconception Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Every woman of reproductive age who is capable of becoming pregnant is a candidate for preconception care, regardless of whether she is planning to conceive. Preconception care is aimed at identifying and modifying biomedical, behavioral, and social risks through preventive and management interventions. Key components include risk assessment, health promotion, and medical and psychosocial interventions. Patients should formulate a reproductive life plan that outlines personal goals about becoming pregnant based on the patient's values and resources. Preconception care can be provided in the primary care setting and through activities linked to schools, workplaces, and the community.
Oral Health During Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.
ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly affects women and is more common in blacks. Although survival rates have improved, over one half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have permanent damage in one or more organ systems. Arthritis and cutaneous manifestations are most common, but renal, hematologic and neurologic manifestations contribute largely to morbidity and mortality. Treatment approaches emphasize using a combination of drugs to minimize chronic exposure to corticosteroids.
ABSTRACT: Adnexal masses are frequently found in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. In premenopausal women, physiologic follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts are the most common adnexal masses, but the possibility of ectopic pregnancy must always be considered. Other masses in this age group include endometriomas, polycystic ovaries, tubo-ovarian abscesses and benign neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms are uncommon in younger women but become more frequent with increasing age. In postmenopausal women with adnexal masses, both primary and secondary neoplasms must be considered, along with leiomyomas, ovarian fibromas and other lesions such as diverticular abscesses. Information from the history, physical examination, ultrasound evaluation and selected laboratory tests will enable the physician to find the most likely cause of an adnexal mass. Measurement of serum CA-125 is a useful test for ovarian malignancy in postmenopausal women with pelvic masses. Asymptomatic premenopausal patients with simple ovarian cysts less than 10 cm in diameter can be observed or placed on suppressive therapy with oral contraceptives. Postmenopausal women with simple cysts less than 3 cm in diameter may also be followed, provided the serum CA-125 level is not elevated and the patient has no signs or symptoms suggestive of malignancy.
Liver Disease in Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of acute hepatitis is unaffected by pregnancy, except in patients with hepatitis E and disseminated herpes simplex infections, in which maternal and fetal mortality rates are significantly increased. Chronic hepatitis B or C infections may be transmitted to neonates; however, hepatitis B virus transmission is effectively prevented with perinatal hepatitis B vaccination and prophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. Cholelithiasis occurs in 6 percent of pregnancies; complications can safely be treated with surgery. Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses. Therapy with penicillamine, trientine, prednisone or azathioprine can be safely continued during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT: Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses are common problems in women of reproductive age. Although the cysts are usually asymptomatic, they may become enlarged or infected and cause significant pain. Often the clinician is tempted simply to lance the cyst or abscess, since this technique can be effective for other common abscesses. However, simple lancing of a Bartholin gland cyst or abscess may result in recurrence. More effective treatment methods include use of a Word catheter and marsupialization, both of which can be performed in the office.
ABSTRACT: Maternal illness during pregnancy is not uncommon and sometimes requires radiographic imaging for proper diagnosis and treatment. The patient and her physician may be concerned about potential harm to the fetus from radiation exposure. In reality, however, the risks to the developing fetus are quite small. The accepted cumulative dose of ionizing radiation during pregnancy is 5 rad, and no single diagnostic study exceeds this maximum. For example, the amount of exposure to the fetus from a two-view chest x-ray of the mother is only 0.00007 rad. The most sensitive time period for central nervous system teratogenesis is between 10 and 17 weeks of gestation. Nonurgent radiologic testing should be avoided during this time. Rare consequences of prenatal radiation exposure include a slight increase in the incidence of childhood leukemia and, possibly, a very small change in the frequency of genetic mutations. Such exposure is not an indication for pregnancy termination. Appropriate counseling of patients before radiologic studies are performed is critical.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a progressive disease affecting 5 to 10 percent of women. It can cause dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, low back pain and infertility. A definitive diagnosis can be made only by means of laparoscopy. Medical treatment designed to interfere with ovulation generally provides effective pain relief, but the recurrence rate following cessation of therapy is high, and this type of treatment will not resolve infertility. Surgical treatment improves pregnancy rates and is the preferred initial treatment for infertility caused by endometriosis. Surgery also appears to provide better long-term pain relief than medical treatment. Bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy are treatment options for patients with intractable pain, if childbearing is no longer desired.