Items in AFP with MESH term: Pregnancy Complications
Ginger for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Vitamin D Supplementation for Women During Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians
Obesity in Pregnancy - Editorials
Update on Prenatal Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks’ gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks’ gestation.
Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age, and when untreated during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, placental abruption, hypertensive disorders, and growth restriction. Current guidelines recommend targeted screening of women at high risk, including those with a history of thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, or other autoimmune disease; current or past use of thyroid therapy; or a family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Appropriate management results in improved outcomes, demonstrating the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment. In women with hypothyroidism, levothyroxine is titrated to achieve a goal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level less than 2.5 mIU per L. The preferred treatment for hyperthyroidism is antithyroid medications, with a goal of maintaining a serum free thyroxine level in the upper one-third of the normal range. Postpartum thyroiditis is the most common form of postpartum thyroid dysfunction and may present as hyper- or hypothyroidism. Symptomatic treatment is recommended for the former; levothyroxine is indicated for the latter in women who are symptomatic, breastfeeding, or who wish to become pregnant.
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is considered late term from 41 weeks, 0 days’ to 41 weeks, 6 days’ gestation, and postterm at 42 weeks’ gestation. Early dating of the pregnancy is important for accurately determining when a pregnancy is late- or postterm, and first-trimester ultrasonography should be performed if clinical dating is uncertain. Optimal management of a low-risk, late-term pregnancy should consider maternal preference and balance the benefits and risks of induction vs. waiting for spontaneous labor. Compared with expectant management, induction at 41 weeks’ gestation is associated with a small absolute decrease in perinatal mortality and decreases in other fetal and maternal risks without an increased risk of cesarean delivery. Although there is no clear evidence that antenatal testing beginning at 41 weeks’ gestation prevents intrauterine fetal demise, it is often performed because the risks are low. When expectant management is chosen, most experts recommend beginning twice-weekly antenatal surveillance at 41 weeks with biophysical profile or nonstress testing plus amniotic fluid index (modified biophysical profile); induction may be deferred until 42 weeks if this surveillance is reassuring.
Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, which may result in adverse outcomes for the mother and fetus. Patients with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be evaluated for other causes, particularly if symptoms are unremitting or presentation is atypical. Initial treatment is conservative and includes dietary changes, emotional support, and vitamin B6 supplementation. Several safe and effective pharmacologic therapies are available for women who do not improve with initial treatment. Women with hyperemesis gravidarum may require more aggressive interventions, including hospitalization, rehydration therapy, and parenteral nutrition.