ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Pregnant Physicians and Infectious Disease Risk - Curbside Consultation
Hepatitis B Vaccine for Infants of HBsAg-Positive Mothers - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.
Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults - Putting Prevention into Practice
Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
ABSTRACT: Family physicians encounter diagnostic and treatment issues when caring for pregnant women with hepatitis B or C and their newborns. When hepatitis B virus is perinatally acquired, an infant has approximately a 90 percent chance of becoming a chronic carrier and, when chronically infected, has a 15 to 25 percent risk of dying in adulthood from cirrhosis or liver cancer. However, early identification and prophylaxis is 85 to 95 percent effective in reducing the acquisition of perinatal infection. Communication among members of the health care team is important to ensure proper preventive techniques are implemented, and standing hospital orders for hepatitis B testing and prophylaxis can reduce missed opportunities for prevention. All pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis B as part of their routine prenatal evaluation; those with ongoing risk factors should be evaluated again when in labor. Infants of mothers who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccination within 12 hours of birth, and other infants should receive hepatitis B vaccination before hospital dis- charge. There are no effective measures for preventing perinatal hepatitis C transmission, but transmission rates are less than 10 percent. Perinatally acquired hepatitis C can be diagnosed by detecting hepatitis C virus RNA on two separate occasions between two and six months of age, or by detecting hepatitis C virus antibodies after 15 months of age.
Bacterial Vaginosis: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge. Recent studies have confirmed its association with pelvic inflammatory disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with oral metronidazole (given either as a single dose or a seven-day course) or clindamycin. Treatment with topical clindamycin or metronidazole is also effective in returning the vaginal flora to normal but may be less effective in preventing the increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Management of Bacterial Vaginosis During Pregnancy - Editorials
CDC Releases the 1998 Guidelines for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Special Medical Reports