Items in AFP with MESH term: Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Second Trimester Pregnancy Loss - Article
ABSTRACT: Second trimester pregnancy loss is uncommon, but it should be regarded as an important event in a woman's obstetric history. Fetal abnormalities, including chromosomal problems, and maternal anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infection, and thrombophilia should be considered; however, a cause-and-effect relationship may be difficult to establish. A thorough history and physical examination should include inquiries about previous pregnancy loss. Laboratory tests may identify treatable etiologies. Although there is limited evidence that specific interventions improve outcomes, management of contributing maternal factors (e.g., smoking, substance abuse) is essential. Preventive measures, including vaccination and folic acid supplementation, are recommended regardless of risk. Management of associated chromosomal factors requires consultation with a genetic counselor or obstetrician. The family physician can play an important role in helping the patient and her family cope with the emotional aspects of pregnancy loss.
ABSTRACT: Pregnant women of all ages should be offered screening and invasive diagnostic testing for chromosomal abnormalities before 20 weeks' gestation. New developments in screening methods have increased the number of options for patients. Diagnostic options include chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester and amniocentesis in the second trimester. Screening options in the first trimester include nuchal translucency testing in combination with measurement of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin. Nuchal translucency testing alone is not as effective. Screening options in the second trimester include serum screening using triple or quadruple screening, and ultrasonography. Patients may also choose a combination of first- and second-trimester screening in an integrated, stepwise sequential, or contingent sequential fashion. These options include an analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, with or without nuchal translucency testing, in combination with quadruple screening. An integrated test with nuchal translucency testing is the most effective method for women who present in the first trimester. If nuchal translucency testing is unavailable, the maternal serum-integrated test is safest and most effective. For women who do not present until the second trimester, the quadruple screen is recommended. Comprehensive counseling should be available to all pregnant women. Specific screening tests will depend on availability of the procedure and patient preference.