ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Fulminant, potentially life-threatening infection is a major long-term risk after splenectomy or in persons who are functionally hyposplenic as a result of various systemic conditions. Most of these infections are caused by encapsulated organisms such as pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae and meningococci. A splenectomized patient is also more susceptible to infections with intraerythrocytic organisms such as Babesia microti and those that seldom affect healthy people, such as Capnocytophaga canimorsus. Most patients who have lost their spleens because of trauma are aware of their asplenic condition, but some older patients do not know that they are asplenic. Other patients may have functional hyposplenism secondary to a variety of systemic diseases ranging from celiac disease to hemoglobinopathies. The identification of Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral blood film is an important clue to the diagnosis of asplenia or hyposplenia. Management of patients with these conditions includes a combination of immunization, antibiotic prophylaxis and patient education. With the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci, appropriate use of the pneumococcal vaccine has become especially important.
Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in adults. The disorder classically presents with pain that is particularly severe with the first few steps taken in the morning. In general, plantar fasciitis is a self-limited condition. However, symptoms usually resolve more quickly when the interval between the onset of symptoms and the onset of treatment is shorter. Many treatment options exist, including rest, stretching, strengthening, change of shoes, arch supports, orthotics, night splints, anti-inflammatory agents and surgery. Usually, plantar fasciitis can be treated successfully by tailoring treatment to an individual's risk factors and preferences.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women, as well as an important cause of disability, although many women and their physicians underestimate the risk. Exercise, hypertension treatment, smoking cessation and aspirin therapy are effective measures for the primary prevention of coronary artery disease in women. The roles of lipid-lowering agents and hormone replacement therapy in primary prevention are not well established. In secondary prevention, hormone replacement therapy has not been effective in lowering the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction, but several lipid-lowering agents have been shown to reduce this risk and to lower mortality rates in women with known coronary artery disease. Other secondary prevention measures, including aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, revascularization and rehabilitation, have proven benefits in women but are underused, especially in minority women. Family physicians should emphasize the use of proven treatments, with particular attention given to underserved populations.
ABSTRACT: People with valvular heart disease are living longer, with less morbidity, than ever before. Advances in surgical techniques and a better understanding of timing for surgical intervention account for increased rates of survival. Echocardiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and periodic assessment of patients with valvular heart disease. Generally, patients with stenotic valvular lesions can be monitored clinically until symptoms appear. In contrast, patients with regurgitant valvular lesions require careful echocardiographic monitoring for left ventricular function and may require surgery even if no symptoms are present. Aside from antibiotic prophylaxis, very little medical therapy is available for patients with valvular heart disease; surgery is the treatment for most symptomatic lesions or for lesions causing left ventricular dysfunction even in the absence of symptoms.
ABSTRACT: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is present in 2 to 4 percent of children between 10 and 16 years of age. It is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees accompanied by vertebral rotation. It is thought to be a multigene dominant condition with variable phenotypic expression. Scoliosis can be identified by the Adam's forward bend test during physical examination. Severe pain, a left thoracic curve or an abnormal neurologic examination are red flags that point to a secondary cause for spinal deformity. Specialty consultation and magnetic resonance imaging are needed if red flags are present. Of adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis, only 10 percent have curves that progress and require medical intervention. The main risk factors for curve progression are a large curve magnitude, skeletal immaturity and female gender. The likelihood of curve progression can be estimated by measuring the curve magnitude using the Cobb method on radiographs and by assessing skeletal growth potential using Tanner staging and Risser grading.
Dermatomyositis - Article
ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic skin manifestations. Although the disorder is rare, with a prevalence of one to 10 cases per million in adults and one to 3.2 cases per million in children, early recognition and treatment are important ways to decrease the morbidity of systemic complications. An association with other connective tissue disorders (overlap syndrome) and malignancy make this diagnosis particularly important to primary care physicians. Patient management includes careful evaluation for underlying malignancy and liberal use of physical therapy, antihistamines, sunscreen and oral corticosteroids. Poor prognostic indicators include poorly responsive disease, delay in diagnosis and the presence of malignancy. The therapeutic goal is to maintain function and prevent or minimize sequelae.
Vulvar Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Vulvar cancer was reported in 3,200 women in 1998, resulting in 800 deaths. Recent evidence suggests that vulvar cancer comprises two separate diseases. The first type may develop from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia caused by human papillomavirus infection and is increasing in prevalence among young women. The second type, which more often afflicts older women, may develop from vulvar non-neoplastic epithelial disorders as a result of chronic inflammation (the itch-scratch-lichen sclerosus hypothesis). Although vulvar cancer is relatively uncommon, early detection remains crucial given its significant impact on sexuality. Diagnosis is based on histology; therefore, any suspicious lesions of the vulva must be biopsied. Excisional or punch biopsy can be performed in the physician's office. Clinicians must closely monitor suspicious lesions because delayed biopsy and diagnosis are common. Once diagnosed, vulvar cancer is staged using the TNM classification system. Treatment is surgical resection, with the goal being complete removal of the tumor. There has been a recent trend toward more conservative surgery to decrease psychosexual complications.
Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment - Article
ABSTRACT: Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. An important subset of heart disease is perioperative myocardial infarction, which affects approximately 50,000 persons each year. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have coauthored a guideline on preoperative cardiac risk assessment, as has the American College of Physicians (ACP). The ACC/AHA guideline uses major, intermediate, and minor clinical predictors to stratify patients into different cardiac risk categories. Patients with poor functional status or those undergoing high-risk surgery require further risk stratification via cardiac stress testing. The ACP guideline also starts by screening patients for clinical variables that predict perioperative cardiac complications. However, the ACP did not feel there was enough evidence to support poor functional status as a significant predictor of increased risk. High-risk patients would sometimes merit preoperative cardiac catheterization by the ACC/AHA guideline, while the ACP version would reserve catheterization only for those who were candidates for cardiac revascularization independent of their noncardiac surgery. A recent development in prophylaxis of surgery-related cardiac complications is the use of beta blockers perioperatively for patients with cardiac risk factors.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a manifestation of acute injury to the lung, commonly resulting from sepsis, trauma, and severe pulmonary infections. Clinically, it is characterized by dyspnea, profound hypoxemia, decreased lung compliance, and diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiography. Provision of supplemental oxygen, lung rest, and supportive care are the fundamentals of therapy. The management of acute respiratory distress syndrome frequently requires endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. A low tidal volume and low plateau pressure ventilator strategy is recommended to avoid ventilator-induced injury. Timely correction of the inciting clinical condition is essential for preventing further injury. Various medications directed at key stages of the pathophysiology have not been as clinically efficacious as the preceding experimental trials indicated. Complications such as pneumothorax, effusions, and focal pneumonia should be identified and promptly treated. In refractory cases, advanced ventilator and novel techniques should be considered, preferably in the setting of clinical trials. During the past decade, mortality has declined from more than 50 percent to about 32 to 45 percent. Death usually results from multisystem organ failure rather than respiratory failure alone.
ABSTRACT: Eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. Eating disorders are associated with devastating medical and psychologic consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Prompt diagnosis is linked to better outcomes. A good medical history is the most powerful tool. Simple screening questions, such as "Do you think you should be dieting?" can be integrated into routine visits. Physical findings such as low body mass index, amenorrhea, bradycardia, gastrointestinal disturbances, skin changes, and changes in dentition can help detect eating disorders. Laboratory studies can help diagnose these conditions and exclude underlying medical conditions. The family physician can play an important role in diagnosing these illnesses and can coordinate the multidisciplinary team of psychiatrists, nutritionists, and other professionals to successfully treat patients with eating disorders.