ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Psychological Interventions for Noncardiac Chest Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians
Counseling or Antidepressants for Treating Depression? - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Depressive Disorders - Clinical Evidence Handbook
Psychosocial Interventions Delivered by Primary Care Physicians to Patients with Depression - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Screening and Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder in Children and Adolescents - Putting Prevention into Practice
ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of depression in older patients is often complicated by comorbid conditions, such as cerebrovascular disease or dementia. Tools specific for this age group, such as the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, may assist in making the diagnosis. Treatment decisions should consider risks associated with medications, such as serotonin syndrome, hyponatremia, falls, fractures, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Older white men with depression are at high risk of suicide. Depression is common after stroke or myocardial infarction, and response to antidepressant treatment has been linked to vascular outcomes. Depression care management is an important adjunct to the use of antidepressant medications. Structured psychotherapy and exercise programs are useful treatments for select patients.
Bipolar Disorders: A Review - Article
ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorders are common, disabling, recurrent mental health conditions of variable severity. Onset is often in late childhood or early adolescence. Patients with bipolar disorders have higher rates of other mental health disorders and general medical conditions. Early recognition and treatment of bipolar disorders improve outcomes. Treatment of mood episodes depends on the presenting phase of illness: mania, hypomania, mixed state, depression, or maintenance. Psychotherapy and mood stabilizers, such as lithium, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics, are first-line treatments that should be continued indefinitely because of the risk of relapse. Monotherapy with antidepressants is contraindicated in mixed states, manic episodes, and bipolar I disorder. Maintenance therapy for patients involves screening for suicidal ideation and substance abuse, evaluating adherence to treatment, and recognizing metabolic complications of pharmacotherapy. Active management of body weight reduces complications and improves lipid control. Patients and their support systems should be educated about mood relapse, suicidal ideation, and the effectiveness of early intervention to reduce complications.
ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking. Diagnostic criteria are the same for children and adults, with the exception that children and adolescents may express irritability rather than sad or depressed mood, and weight loss may be viewed in terms of failure to reach appropriate weight milestones. Treatment must take into account the severity of depression, suicidality, developmental stage, and environmental and social factors. Cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy are recommended for patients with mild depression and are appropriate adjuvant treatments to medication in those with moderate to severe depression. Pharmacotherapy is recommended for patients with moderate or severe depression. Tricyclic antidepressants are not effective in children and adolescents. Antidepressants have a boxed warning for the increased risk of suicide; therefore, careful assessment, follow-up, safety planning, and patient and family education should be included when treatment is initiated.