Items in AFP with MESH term: Quality of Life
Making a Living and a Life - Balancing Act
Sialorrhea--A Management Challenge - Article
ABSTRACT: Sialorrhea (drooling or excessive salivation) is a common problem in neurologically impaired children (i.e., those with mental retardation or cerebral palsy) and in adults who have Parkinson's disease or have had a stroke. It is most commonly caused by poor oral and facial muscle control. Contributing factors may include hypersecretion of saliva, dental malocclusion, postural problems, and an inability to recognize salivary spill. Sialorrhea causes a range of physical and psychosocial complications, including perioral chapping, dehydration, odor, and social stigmatization, that can be devastating for patients and their families. Treatment of sialorrhea is best managed by a clinical team that includes primary health care providers, speech pathologists, occupational therapists, dentists, orthodontists, neurologists, and otolaryngologists. Treatment options range from conservative (i.e., observation, postural changes, biofeedback) to more aggressive measures such as medication, radiation, and surgical therapy. Anticholinergic medications, such as glycopyrrolate and scopolamine, are effective in reducing drooling, but their use may be limited by side effects. The injection of botulinum toxin type A into the parotid and submandibular glands is safe and effective in controlling drooling, but the effects fade in several months, and repeat injections are necessary. Surgical intervention, including salivary gland excision, salivary duct ligation, and duct rerouting, provides the most effective and permanent treatment of significant sialorrhea and can greatly improve the quality of life of patients and their families or caregivers.
Quality of Life in Older Persons with Dementia Living in Nursing Homes - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: A systematic approach to chronic nonmalignant pain includes a comprehensive evaluation; a treatment plan determined by the diagnosis and mechanisms underlying the pain; patient education; and realistic goal setting. The main goal of treatment is to improve quality of life while decreasing pain. An initial comprehensive pain assessment is essential in developing a treatment plan that addresses the physical, social, functional, and psychological needs of the patient. One obstacle to appropriate pain management is managing the adverse effects of medication. Opioids pose challenges with abuse, addiction, diversion, lack of knowledge, concerns about adverse effects, and fears of regulatory scrutiny. These challenges may be overcome by adherence to the Federation of State Medical Boards guidelines, use of random urine drug screening, monitoring for aberrant behaviors, and anticipating adverse effects. When psychiatric comorbidities are present, risk of substance abuse is high and pain management may require specialized treatment or consultation. Referral to a pain management specialist can be helpful.
ABSTRACT: The care of a patient in the intensive care unit extends well beyond his or her hospitalization. Evaluation of a patient after leaving the intensive care unit involves a review of the hospital stay, including principal diagnosis, exposure to medications, period spent in the intensive care unit, and history of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Fatigue should prompt evaluation for possible anemia, nutritional deficits, sleep disturbance, muscular deconditioning, and neurologic impairment. Other common problems include poor appetite with possible weight loss, falls, and sexual dysfunction. Psychological morbidities, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression also often occur in the post-intensive care unit patient. These conditions are more common among patients with a history of delirium, prolonged sedation, mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The physician should gain an understanding of the patient's altered quality of life, including employment status, and the state of his or her relationships with loved ones or the primary caregiver. As in many aspects of medicine, a multidisciplinary treatment approach is most beneficial to the post-intensive care unit patient.
A "Hopeless" Patient - Curbside Consultation
Managing Pain at the End of Life - Editorials
NIH Releases Statement on Managing Pain, Depression, and Fatigue in Cancer - Practice Guidelines
Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Determining Prognosis for Patients with Terminal Cancer - Point-of-Care Guides