ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
ABSTRACT: Leukotriene inhibitors are the first new class of medications for the treatment of persistent asthma that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in more than two decades. They also have been approved for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Prescriptions of leukotriene inhibitors have outpaced the evidence supporting their use, perhaps because of perceived ease of use compared with other asthma medications. In the treatment of persistent asthma, randomized controlled trials have shown leukotriene inhibitors to be more effective than placebo but less effective than inhaled corticosteroids. The use of leukotriene inhibitors has not consistently shown an inhaled-steroid-sparing effect, a reduction in need for systemic steroid treatment, or a cost savings. For exercise-induced asthma, leukotriene inhibitors are as effective as long-acting beta2-agonist bronchodilators and are superior to placebo; they have not been compared with short-acting bronchodilators. Leukotriene inhibitors are as effective as antihistamines but are less effective than intranasal steroids for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The use of leukotriene inhibitors in treating atopic dermatitis, aspirin-intolerant asthma, and chronic idiopathic urticaria appears promising but has not been studied thoroughly. Leukotriene inhibitors have minimal side effects and are well tolerated in most populations.
AHRQ Releases Review of Treatments for Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis - Practice Guidelines
Chronic Rhinitis: Allergic or Nonallergic? - Editorials
Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic respiratory illness that affects quality of life, productivity, and other comorbid conditions, including asthma. Treatment should be based on the patient’s age and severity of symptoms. Patients should be advised to avoid known allergens and be educated about their condition. Intranasal corticosteroids are the most effective treatment and should be first-line therapy for mild to moderate disease. Moderate to severe disease not responsive to intranasal corticosteroids should be treated with second-line therapies, including antihistamines, decongestants, cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and nonpharmacologic therapies (e.g., nasal irrigation). With the exception of cetirizine, second-generation antihistamines are less likely to cause sedation and impair performance. Immunotherapy should be considered in patients with a less than adequate response to usual treatments. Evidence does not support the use of mite-proof impermeable covers, air filtration systems, or delayed exposure to solid foods in infancy.
ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has been used for over 80 years. It is a safe and effective therapeutic intervention for allergic rhinitis, but its use in the treatment of asthma is more controversial. Patients with unstable asthma are at increased risk of adverse effects from immunotherapy; therefore, if immunotherapy is used in such patients, it should be instituted cautiously. Indications for immunotherapy include evidence of IgE-mediated disease and positive results on skin tests or radioallergosorbent test (RAST). In addition, before immunotherapy is considered, measures to avoid exposure to offending agents and drug therapy should have failed to provide relief of symptoms. Before administering immunotherapy in the office, physicians should be knowledgeable about the use of immunotherapy and the treatment of anaphylaxis, and should have ready access to the equipment needed to avert anaphylaxis.