Items in AFP with MESH term: Scrotum

Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - Article

ABSTRACT: Scrotal masses can represent a wide range of medical issues, from benign congenital conditions to life-threatening malignancies and acute surgical emergencies. Having a clear understanding of scrotal anatomy allows the examiner to accurately identify most lesions. Benign lesions such as hydroceles and varicoceles are often found incidentally by the patient or physician on routine examination. Epididymitis is bacterial in origin, readily diagnosed on physical examination, and treated with antibiotics. Indirect inguinal hernias usually are palpable separate from the normal scrotal contents and are a surgical emergency if strangulation is suspected based on symptoms of abdominal pain, tenderness, and nonreducibility. Testicular swelling may be caused by orchitis, cancer, or testicular torsion. Orchitis is usually viral in origin, subacute in onset, and may be accompanied by systemic illness. Testicular carcinomas are more gradual in onset; the testis will be nontender on examination. Testicular torsion has an acute onset, often with no antecedent trauma; the involved testis may be retracted and palpably rotated, and will be tender on examination. The swollen testis is always a true emergency. Although history and examination may suggest the diagnosis, testicular torsion can be reliably confirmed only with color Doppler ultrasonography, which must be obtained immediately. If torsion is suspected, surgical consultation should be obtained concurrently with ultrasonography, because the ability to successfully salvage the affected testis declines dramatically after six hours of torsion.


Evaluation of Scrotal Masses - Article

ABSTRACT: Scrotal masses are caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from benign conditions to those requiring emergent surgical intervention. Painful scrotal masses require urgent evaluation. Characteristics that suggest testicular torsion include rapid symptom onset, nausea and vomiting, high position of the testicle, and abnormal cremasteric reflex. Doppler ultrasonography or surgical exploration is required to confirm the diagnosis. Surgical repair must occur within six hours of symptom onset to reliably salvage the testicle. Epididymitis/orchitis have a slower onset and are associated with a C-reactive protein level greater than 24 mg per L (228.6 nmol per L) and increased blood flow on ultrasonography. Acute onset of pain with near normal physical examination and ultrasound findings is consistent with torsion of the testicular appendage. Testicular malignancies cause pain in 15% of cases. If ultrasonography shows an intratesticular mass, timely urology referral is indicated. Inguinal hernias are palpated separate to the testicle and can cause pain. Emergent surgery is indicated for a strangulated hernia. Hydrocele, varicocele, and scrotal skin lesions may be managed in nonurgent settings. A biopsy should be performed to rule out cancer in patients with scrotal skin lesions that are erosive, vascular, hyperkeratotic, or nonhealing, or that change color or have irregular borders.


Multiple Vesicles and Bullae on the Scrotum - Photo Quiz



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