Items in AFP with MESH term: Skin

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The Newborn Examination: Part I. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the Skin, Head, Neck, Chest, and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems - Article

ABSTRACT: The routine newborn assessment should include an examination for size, macrocephaly or microcephaly, changes in skin color, signs of birth trauma, malformations, evidence of respiratory distress, level of arousal, posture, tone, presence of spontaneous movements, and symmetry of movements. A newborn with one anatomic malformation should be evaluated for associated anomalies. Total and direct bilirubin levels should be measured in newborns with jaundice, and a complete blood count should be obtained in those with pallor or a ruddy complexion. Neurosurgical consultation is necessary in infants with craniosynostosis accompanied by restricted brain growth or hydrocephalus, cephaloceles, or exophytic scalp nodules. Neck masses can be identified by their location and include vascular malformations, abnormal lymphatic tissue, teratomas, and dermoid cysts. Most facial nerve palsies resolve spontaneously. Conjunctivitis is relatively common in newborns. Infants with chest abnormalities may need to be evaluated for Poland's syndrome or Turner's syndrome. Murmurs in the immediate newborn period are usually innocent and represent a transition from fetal to neonatal circulation. Because cyanosis is primarily secondary to respiratory or cardiac causes, affected newborns should be evaluated expeditiously, with the involvement of a cardiologist or neonatologist.


Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome: Guidelines for Early Detection - Article

ABSTRACT: Basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. It is characterized by five major components, including multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, congenital skeletal abnormalities, ectopic calcifications, and plantar or palmar pits. Other features include a host of benign tumors, ocular defects, and cleft lip and palate. Guidelines for diagnosis include a family history, careful oral and skin examinations, chest and skull radiographs, panoramic radiographs of the jaw, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and pelvic ultrasonography in women.


The Mattress Sutures: Vertical, Horizontal, and Corner Stitch - Article

ABSTRACT: The interrupted vertical and horizontal mattress suture techniques are two of the most commonly used skin closure methods. These mattress sutures promote wound edge eversion and less prominent scarring. Vertical and horizontal mattress sutures allow for skin edges to be closed under tension when wound edges have to be brought together over a distance. The corner stitch, a variation of the horizontal mattress suture, is commonly used for closure of angled skin flaps or wounds. Although mattress sutures can produce surface scarring or "railroad marks," early removal of these sutures can limit this damage.


Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Overview - Article

ABSTRACT: Seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp, central face, and anterior chest. In adolescents and adults, it often presents as scalp scaling (dandruff). Seborrheic dermatitis also may cause mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold, often with scaling. Stress can cause flare-ups. The scales are greasy, not dry, as commonly thought. An uncommon generalized form in infants may be linked to immunodeficiencies. Topical therapy primarily consists of antifungal agents and low-potency steroids. New topical calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators) sometimes are administered.


Common Skin Conditions During Pregnancy - Article

ABSTRACT: Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.


Management of Foreign Bodies in the Skin - Article

ABSTRACT: Although puncture wounds are common, retained foreign bodies are not. Wounds with a foreign body sensation should be evaluated. The presence of wood or vegetative material, graphite or other pigmenting materials, and pain is an indication for foreign body removal. Radiography may be used to locate foreign bodies for removal, and ultrasonography can be helpful for localizing radiolucent foreign bodies. It is wise to set a time limit for exploration and to have a plan for further evaluation or referral. Injuries at high risk of infection include organic foreign bodies or dirty wounds. These should be treated with plain water irrigation and complete removal of retained fragments. In most cases, antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated. If a patient presents with an infected wound, the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered. Tetanus prophylaxis is necessary if there is no knowledge or documentation of tetanus immunization within 10 years, including tetanus immune globulin for the person with a dirty wound whose history of tetanus toxoid doses is unknown or incomplete.


Chronic Rash in a Middle-Aged Woman - Photo Quiz


Painful Plaques Shortly After Hospital Discharge - Photo Quiz


Blue-Gray Discoloration of the Skin - Photo Quiz


Progressive Skin Fibrosis - Photo Quiz


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