Items in AFP with MESH term: Spinal Diseases
ABSTRACT: Epidural abscess of the spinal column is a rare condition that can be fatal if left untreated. Risk factors for epidural abscess include immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as spinal procedures including epidural anesthesia and spinal surgery. The signs and symptoms of epidural abscess are nonspecific and can range from low back pain to sepsis. The treatment of choice in most patients is surgical decompression followed by four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nonsurgical treatment may be appropriate in selected patients. The most common causative organism in spinal epidural abscess is Staphylococcus aureus. Spinal epidural abscess involving actinomycosis is rare.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians need to understand diagnostic and treatment strategies for common causes of shoulder pain. We review key elements of the history and physical examination and describe maneuvers that can be used to reach an appropriate diagnosis. Examination of the shoulder should include inspection, palpation, evaluation of range of motion and provocative testing. In addition, a thorough sensorimotor examination of the upper extremity should be performed, and the neck and elbow should be evaluated.