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ABSTRACT: Joint and soft tissue injection of the ankle and foot region is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. This article reviews the injection procedure for the plantar fascia, ankle joint, tarsal tunnel, interdigital space, and first metatarsophalangeal joint. Indications for plantar fascia injection include degeneration secondary to repetitive use and traumatic injuries that are unresponsive to conservative treatment. Diagnostic aspiration or therapeutic injection of the ankle or first metatarsophalangeal joints can be performed for management of advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory arthritides such as gout, or synovitis or an arthrosis such as "turf toe." Persistent pain and disability resulting from tarsal tunnel syndrome, an analog of carpal tunnel syndrome of the wrist respond to local injection therapy. A painful interdigital space, such as that occurring in patients with Morton's neuroma, is commonly relieved with corticosteroid injection. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Lisfranc joint injuries are rare, complex and often misdiagnosed. Typical signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and the inability to bear weight. Clinically, these injuries vary from mild sprains to fracture-dislocations. On physical examination, swelling is found primarily over the midfoot region. Pain is elicited with palpation along the tarsometatarsal articulations, and force applied to this area may elicit medial or lateral pain. Radiographs showing diastasis of the normal architecture confirm the presence of a severe sprain and possible dislocation. Negative standard and weight-bearing radiographs do not rule out a mild (grade I) or moderate (grade II) sprain. Reevaluation may be necessary if pain and swelling continue for 10 days after the injury. Proper treatment of a mild to moderate Lisfranc injury improves the chance of successful healing and reduces the likelihood of complications. Patients with fractures and fracture-dislocations should be referred for surgical management.