ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men 20 to 35 years of age and has an annual incidence of four per 100,000. If diagnosed early, the cure rate is nearly 99 percent. Risk factors for testicular cancer include cryptorchidism (i.e., undescended testicles), family history, infertility, tobacco use, and white race. Routine self-examination and physician screening have not been shown to improve outcomes, and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Cancer Society do not recommend them in asymptomatic men. Patients presenting with a painless testicular mass, scrotal heaviness, a dull ache, or acute pain should receive a thorough examination. Testicular masses should be examined with scrotal ultrasonography. If ultrasonography shows an intratesticular mass, the patient should be referred to a urologist for definitive diagnosis, orchiectomy, and further evaluation with abdominal computed tomography and chest radiography. The family physician's role after diagnosis of testicular cancer includes encouraging the patient to bank sperm because of possible infertility and evaluating for recurrence and future complications, especially cardiovascular disease.
Screening for Testicular Cancer: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Testicular Masses - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians often must evaluate patients with testicular pain or masses. The incidental finding of a scrotal mass may also require evaluation. Patients may seek evaluation of a scrotal mass as an incidental finding. An accurate history combined with a complete examination of the male external genitalia will help indicate a preliminary diagnosis and proper treatment. Family physicians must keep in mind the emergency or "must not miss" diagnoses associated with testicular masses, including testicular torsion, epididymitis, acute orchitis, strangulated hernia and testicular cancer. Referral to a urologist should be made immediately if one of these diagnoses is suspected. Benign causes of scrotal masses, including hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele, may be diagnosed and managed easily in the primary care office.
Testicular Cancer - Article
ABSTRACT: Although testicular cancer accounts for only 1 percent of all tumors in males, it is the most common malignancy in males between 15 and 34 years of age. Cryptorchidism is the most significant risk factor for testicular cancer, increasing the risk up to 11-fold. A painless testicular mass is the classic presentation for testicular cancer, although a number of patients present with diffuse pain or swelling. Ultrasonography may be helpful in confirming the presence of a scrotal mass within the testicle. Intratesticular masses are considered malignant until proved otherwise. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment for the primary tumor. Staging of disease is based on tumor histology, serum tumor markers and presence of lymph-node or other metastatic disease. Depending on the stage of disease, further treatment may include observation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or surgery. Survival rates in patients with testicular cancer have improved dramatically in the past 20 years and now exceed 90 percent overall.
ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis and management of the undescended testicle are needed to preserve fertility and improve early detection of testicular malignancy. Physical examination of the testicle can be difficult; consultation should be considered if a normal testis cannot be definitely identified. Observation is not recommended beyond one year of age because it delays treatment, lowers the rate of surgical success and probably impairs spermatogenesis. By six months of age, patients with undescended testicles should be evaluated by a pediatric urologist or other qualified subspecialist who can assist with diagnosis and treatment. Earlier referral may be warranted for bilateral nonpalpable testes in the newborn or for any child with both hypospadias and an undescended testis. Therapy for an undescended testicle should begin between six months and two years of age and may consist of hormone or surgical treatment. The success of either form of treatment depends on the position of the testicle at diagnosis. Recent improvements in surgical technique, including laparoscopic approaches to diagnosis and treatment, hold the promise of improved outcomes. While orchiopexy may not protect patients from developing testicular malignancy, the procedure allows for earlier detection through self-examination of the testicles.
Gynecomastia - Article
ABSTRACT: Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may be caused by chronic conditions (e.g., cirrhosis, hypogonadism, renal insufficiency); use of medications, supplements, or illicit drugs; and, rarely, tumors. Discontinuing use of contributing medications and treating underlying disease are the mainstay of treatment. Medications, such as estrogen receptor modulators, and surgery have a role in treating gynecomastia in select patients. Treatment should be pursued early and should be directed by the patient.
Another Test in Life - Close-ups