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ABSTRACT: Testosterone treatment is controversial for men and even more so for women. Although long-term outcome data are not available, prescriptions for testosterone are becoming more common. Testosterone is used primarily to treat symptoms of sexual dysfunction in men and women and hot flashes in women. Potential benefits include improved libido, increased bone mass, and increased sense of well-being. In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other chronic diseases, testosterone has been shown to improve mood and energy levels, even in patients with normal testosterone levels. Testosterone can be administered by injection, patch, topical gel, pill, or implant. Side effects in men include polycythemia and acne. Side effects in women include acne, hepatotoxicity, and virilization and usually only occur when testosterone is used in supraphysiologic doses. Long-term studies of the effects of testosterone on prostate cancer, breast cancer, and heart disease have not been completed. Mammograms and monitoring of prostate-specific antigen, hematocrit, and lipid levels are recommended for patients taking testosterone.