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Evaluation of Poststreptococcal Illness - Article
ABSTRACT: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rarely asymptomatic carrier states are associated with a number of poststreptococcal suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. As in streptococcal pharyngitis, acute rheumatic fever, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis most often occur in children. The hallmarks of rheumatic fever include arthritis, carditis, cutaneous disease, chorea, and subsequent acquired valvular disease. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders encompass a subgroup of illnesses involving the basal ganglia in children with obsessive-compulsive disorders, tic disorders, dystonia, chorea encephalitis, and dystonic choreoathetosis. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is most frequently encountered in children between two and six years of age with a recent history of pharyngitis and a rash in the setting of poor personal hygiene during the winter months. The clinical examination of a patient with possible poststreptococcal complications should begin with an evaluation for signs of inflammation (i.e., complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) and evidence of a preceding streptococcal infection. Antistreptolysin O titers should be obtained to confirm a recent invasive streptococcal infection. Other important antibody markers include antihyaluronidase, antideoxyribonuclease B, and antistreptokinase antibodies.
ABSTRACT: Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome are conditions that primary care physicians are likely to encounter. Up to 20 percent of children have at least a transient tic disorder at some point. Once believed to be rare, Tourette's syndrome is now known to be a more common disorder that represents the most complex and severe manifestation of the spectrum of tic disorders. Tourette's syndrome is a chronic familial disorder with a fluctuating course; the long-term outcome is generally favorable. Although the exact underlying pathology has yet to be determined, evidence indicates a disorder localized to the frontal-subcortical neural pathways. Tourette's syndrome is commonly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, behavior problems and learning disabilities. These comorbid conditions make the management of Tourette's syndrome more challenging. Management of Tourette's syndrome should include timely and accurate diagnosis, education, and behavior or pharmacologic interventions. Use of neuroleptic medications and dopamine D2 antagonist drugs can be effective but may be associated with significant side effects.
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