ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
ABSTRACT: The population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing in North America. Radiologic imaging is critical for the initial assessment and for surveillance in this population. Chest radiography and echocardiography are valuable first-line tools for evaluation. However, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are often necessary, particularly for assessment of extracardiac anatomy or specific vascular connections or relationships, which may be complex in postoperative patients. Although magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography can provide volumetric data for more comprehensive evaluation of cardiac anatomy and function, magnetic resonance imaging does not require patient exposure to ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast media. Magnetic resonance imaging also can measure blood flow for quantification of left-to-right shunts, regurgitant fractions, and pressure gradients. Although noninvasive imaging techniques have limitations, they can evaluate most lesions and preclude the need for cardiac catheterization. Noninvasive imaging is particularly useful for serial evaluation of patients with surgically corrected congenital heart disease, because nearly one half of these patients will require two or more surgeries.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - Article
ABSTRACT: Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an aneurysm. Ultrasound, the preferred method of screening, is cost-effective in high-risk patients. Repair is indicated when the aneurysm becomes greater than 5.5 cm in diameter or grows more than 0.6 to 0.8 cm per year. Asymptomatic patients with an AAA should be medically optimized before repair, including institution of beta blockade. Symptomatic aneurysms present with back, abdominal, buttock, groin, testicular, or leg pain and require urgent surgical attention. Rupture of an AAA involves complete loss of aortic wall integrity and is a surgical emergency requiring immediate repair. The mortality rate approaches 90 percent if rupture occurs outside the hospital. Although open surgical repair has been performed safely, an endovascular approach is used in select patients if the aortic and iliac anatomy are amenable. Two large randomized controlled trials did not find any improvement in mortality rate or morbidity with this approach compared with conventional open surgical repair.
Chronic Productive Cough - Photo Quiz
ABSTRACT: The increasing use of cross-sectional imaging has led to an increase in the incidental discovery of adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas). Although most of these lesions are benign, they often present a diagnostic dilemma. Before creating a management plan, the physician should determine if the lesion is benign or malignant and if the lesion is functioning or nonfunctioning. Incidentally discovered adrenal masses usually are benign adenomas; however, myelolipomas, cysts, hemorrhage, pheochromocytomas, metastases, and adrenocortical carcinomas are also possible. Unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging can characterize most adenomas because the lesions have high lipid content. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography can further characterize the adenomas because of the washout characteristics with iodinated intravenous contrast media. Fluorodeoxyglucose– positron emission tomography can be helpful in characterizing some lesions, and biopsy is rarely required. This article summarizes the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria for the use of imaging modalities and biopsy to characterize incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
ABSTRACT: For many years, there were no guidelines for evaluating patients with chronic neck pain. However, in the past 15 years, considerable research has led to recommendations regarding whiplash-associated disorders. This article summarizes the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria for chronic neck pain. Imaging plays an important role in evaluating patients with chronic neck pain. Five radiographic views (anteroposterior, lateral, open-mouth, and both oblique views) are recommended for all patients with chronic neck pain with or without a history of trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed in patients with chronic neurologic signs or symptoms, regardless of radiographic findings. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating ligamentous and membranous abnormalities in persons with whiplash-associated disorders is controversial. If there is a contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography myelography is recommended. Patients with normal radiographic findings and no neurologic signs or symptoms, or patients with radiographic evidence of spondylosis and no neurologic findings, need no further imaging studies.
ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis of left lower-quadrant pain includes gastrointestinal, gynecologic, and renal/ureteric pathology. Imaging is helpful in evaluating left lower-quadrant pain, and is generally guided by the clinical presentation. Acute sigmoid diverticulitis should be suspected when the clinical triad of left lower-quadrant pain, fever, and leukocytosis is present. The severity of disease varies from mild pericolonic and peridiverticular inflammation to severe inflammatory changes with complications such as perforation, peritonitis, or abscess or fistula formation. Computed tomography is the preferred test in evaluating clinically suspected diverticulitis. It is used to evaluate the severity and extent of disease and to identify complications, but it also may diagnose other causes of left lower-quadrant pain that can mimic diverticulitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assess left lower-quadrant pain. It has superior resolution of soft tissues and does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation, but it is expensive and requires more time to perform. Transabdominal ultrasonography with graded compression is another effective technique but is limited by its high operator dependency and technical difficulties in scanning patients who are obese. Pelvic ultrasonography is the preferred imaging modality in women of childbearing age. Radiography with contrast enema is less sensitive than computed tomography in diagnosing diverticulitis and is seldom used.
Unusual Case of Pharyngitis - Photo Quiz
Management of Seizures and Epilepsy - Article
ABSTRACT: While the evaluation and treatment of patients with seizures or epilepsy is often challenging, modern therapy provides many patients with complete seizure control. After a first seizure, evaluation should focus on excluding an underlying neurologic or medical condition, assessing the relative risk of seizure recurrence and determining whether treatment is indicated. Successful management of patients with recurrent seizures begins with the establishment of an accurate diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome followed by treatment using an appropriate medication in a manner that optimizes efficacy. The goal of therapy is to completely control seizures without producing unacceptable medication side effects. Patients who do not achieve complete seizure control should be referred to an epilepsy specialist, since new medications and surgical treatments offer patients unprecedented options in seizure control.
American Heart Association Issues Guidelines on Imaging in Transient Ischemic Attacks and Stroke - Special Medical Reports
Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery - Article
ABSTRACT: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a minimally invasive technique used to restore sinus ventilation and normal function. The most suitable candidates for this procedure have recurrent acute or chronic infective sinusitis, and an improvement in symptoms of up to 90 percent may be expected following the procedure. Fiberoptic telescopes are used for diagnosis and during the procedure, and computed tomography is used to assess the anatomy and identify diseased areas. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery should be reserved for use in patients in whom medical treatment has failed. The procedure can be performed under general or local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, and patients usually experience minimal discomfort. The complication rate for this procedure is lower than that for conventional sinus energy.