Items in AFP with MESH term: United States Food and Drug Administration
Prevention of Meningococcal Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis has an average annual incidence of one case per 100,000 in the United States. The disease can be rapidly fatal or result in severe neurologic and vascular sequelae despite antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone is required for household and other close contacts. Although the majority of cases of meningococcal disease are sporadic, outbreaks can occur, and vaccination of the affected population often is necessary. Serogroup B accounts for the highest incidence of disease in young infants but is not contained in any vaccine licensed in the United States. Adolescents and young adults 15 to 24 years of age have a higher incidence of disease and a higher fatality rate than other populations. Because 70 to 80 percent of these infections in the United States are caused by meningococcal serogroups C, Y, and W-135, which are contained in the tetravalent meningococcal vaccines, they are potentially preventable. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved a meningococcal conjugate vaccine containing serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. This T-cell-dependent vaccine induces bactericidal antibody production and promotes immunologic memory that should result in a longer duration of immunity. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that this vaccine be given to 11- and 12-year-old adolescents, to adolescents entering high school, and to college freshmen living in dormitories. The vaccine also may be given to persons 11 to 55 years of age who belong to certain high-risk groups.
ABSTRACT: Self-care is becoming increasingly popular among health care consumers. The availability of over-the-counter medications makes it possible for consumers to treat numerous ailments without the supervision of a health care professional. Many of the medications now available without a prescription were previously classified as prescription-only products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has procedures in place that allow prescription products to be reclassified as over-the-counter medications if certain criteria are met. Reclassified products have had clinical and economic effects on the U.S. health care system and have led to concerns among health care professionals. Patient education and counseling are particularly important to promote safe and effective use of over-the-counter products.
ABSTRACT: A growing number of Americans are using herbal products for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies are largely unknown. Ginkgo biloba extract, advertised as improving cognitive functioning, has been reported to cause spontaneous bleeding, and it may interact with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. St. John's wort, promoted as a treatment for depression, may have monoamine oxidase-inhibiting effects or may cause increased levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Although St. John's wort probably does not interact with foods that contain tyramine, it should not be used with prescription antidepressants. Ephedrine-containing herbal products have been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, seizures and even death. Ginseng, widely used for its purported physical and mental effects, is generally well tolerated, but it has been implicated as a cause of decreased response to warfarin. Physicians must be alert for adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies, and they should ask all patients about the use of these products.
ABSTRACT: Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as 'black box' warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings.
Significant FDA Approvals in 2000 - FDA Perspective
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs
Significant FDA Approvals in 2001 - Practice Guidelines
Redefining Appropriate Use of Antibiotics - Editorials
At-Home Genetic Tests - Curbside Consultation