ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
United States Public Health Service
ABSTRACT: Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have an important opportunity to decrease smoking rates with office-based interventions. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that primary care physicians use the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) model when treating patients with nicotine addiction. Physicians can improve screening and increase cessation rates by asking patients about tobacco use at every office visit. Behavior modification can improve long-term smoking cessation success; even brief (five minutes or less) advice on smoking cessation during an office visit can increase cessation rates. The effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments generally is lower; therefore, pharmacotherapy is recommended for smokers who are willing to attempt cessation, unless medical contraindications exist. The pharmacologic agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of tobacco dependence include bupropion (a non-nicotine therapy) and nicotine replacement therapies in the form of a gum, patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge. These agents have similar long-term success rates.
USPSTF Recommendations for STI Screening - Article
ABSTRACT: Since 2000, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued eight clinical recommendation statements on screening for sexually transmitted infections. This article, written on behalf of the USPSTF, is an overview of these recommendations. The USPSTF recommends that women at increased risk of infection be screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Men at increased risk should be screened for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. All pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis; pregnant women at increased risk also should be screened for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Nonpregnant women and men not at increased risk do not require routine screening for sexually transmitted infections. Engaging in high-risk sexual behavior places persons at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. The USPSTF recommends that all sexually active women younger than 25 years be considered at increased risk of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Because not all communities present equal risk of sexually transmitted infections, the USPSTF encourages physicians to consider expanding or limiting the routine sexually transmitted infection screening they provide based on the community and populations they serve.
PHS Updates Smoking Cessation Guideline - Practice Guidelines
U.S. Public Health Service Updates Guidelines for HIV Prophylaxis in Health Care Workers - Special Medical Reports