ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Urinary retention is the inability to voluntarily void urine. This condition can be acute or chronic. Causes of urinary retention are numerous and can be classified as obstructive, infectious and inflammatory, pharmacologic, neurologic, or other. The most common cause of urinary retention is benign prostatic hyperplasia. Other common causes include prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis, and vulvovaginitis; receiving medications in the anticholinergic and alphaadrenergic agonist classes; and cortical, spinal, or peripheral nerve lesions. Obstructive causes in women often involve the pelvic organs. A thorough history, physical examination, and selected diagnostic testing should determine the cause of urinary retention in most cases. Initial management includes bladder catheterization with prompt and complete decompression. Men with acute urinary retention from benign prostatic hyperplasia have an increased chance of returning to normal voiding if alpha blockers are started at the time of catheter insertion. Suprapubic catheterization may be superior to urethral catheterization for short-term management and silver alloy-impregnated urethral catheters have been shown to reduce urinary tract infection. Patients with chronic urinary retention from neurogenic bladder should be able to manage their condition with clean, intermittent self-catheterization; low-friction catheters have shown benefit in these patients. Definitive management of urinary retention will depend on the etiology and may include surgical and medical treatments.
Urinary Catheter Management - Article
ABSTRACT: The use of urinary catheters should be avoided whenever possible. Clean intermittent catheterization, when practical, is preferable to long-term catheterization. Suprapubic catheters offer some advantages, and condom catheters may be appropriate for some men. While clean handling of catheters is important, routine perineal cleaning and catheter irrigation or changing are ineffective in eliminating bacteriuria. Bacteriuria is inevitable in patients requiring long-term catheterization, but only symptomatic infections should be treated. Infections are usually polymicrobial, and seriously ill patients require therapy with two antibiotics. Patients with spinal cord injuries and those using catheters for more than 10 years are at greater risk of bladder cancer and renal complications; periodic renal scans, urine cytology and cystoscopy may be indicated in these patients.