ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Evaluation of Dysuria in Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: Dysuria, defined as pain, burning, or discomfort on urination, is more common in women than in men. Although urinary tract infection is the most frequent cause of dysuria, empiric treatment with antibiotics is not always appropriate. Dysuria occurs more often in younger women, probably because of their greater frequency of sexual activity. Older men are more likely to have dysuria because of an increased incidence of prostatic hyperplasia with accompanying inflammation and infection. A comprehensive history and physical examination can often reveal the cause of dysuria. Urinalysis may not be needed in healthier patients who have uncomplicated medical histories and symptoms. In most patients, however, urinalysis can help to determine the presence of infection and confirm a suspected diagnosis. Urine cultures and both urethral and vaginal smears and cultures can help to identify sites of infection and causative agents. Coliform organisms, notably Escherichia coli, are the most common pathogens in urinary tract infection. Dysuria can also be caused by noninfectious inflammation or trauma, neoplasm, calculi, hypoestrogenism, interstitial cystitis, or psychogenic disorders. Although radiography and other forms of imaging are rarely needed, these studies may identify abnormalities in the upper urinary tract when symptoms are more complex.
The Woman with Dysuria - Article
ABSTRACT: Bacterial cystitis is the most common bacterial infection occurring in women. Thirty percent of women will experience at least one episode of cystitis during their lifetime. About one third of patients presenting with symptoms of cystitis have upper urinary tract infection. A careful history to identify risk factors for subclinical pyelonephritis is important. Symptoms of chronic cystitis accompanied by sterile urine without pyuria may represent interstitial cystitis. Dysuria may also be the principal complaint of women with vaginitis (infectious, atrophic or chemical) or urethritis. A stepwise diagnostic approach, accompanied by inexpensive office laboratory testing, is usually sufficient to determine the cause of dysuria.
Evaluation of Dysuria in Men - Article
ABSTRACT: Men with pain or a burning sensation on urination should be evaluated with a thorough history, a focused physical examination and urinalysis (both urine dipstick and microscopic examination of the urine specimen). Although dysuria may be caused by anything that leads to inflammation of the urethal mucosa, it is most often the result of urinary tract infection. In younger patients, the infectious agent is usually a sexually transmitted organism such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In patients over 35 years of age, coliform bacteria predominate. Infection in older men most often occurs as a result of urinary stasis secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Other conditions that may cause dysuria include renal calculus, genitourinary malignancy, spondyloarthropathy and medications. Successful treatment of dysuria depends on correct identification of its cause.
ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome affects more than 1 million persons in the United States, but the cause remains unknown. Most patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are women with symptoms of suprapubic pelvic and/or genital area pain, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It is important to exclude other conditions such as infections. Tests and tools commonly used to diagnose interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome include specific questionnaires developed to assess the condition, the potassium sensitivity test, the anesthetic bladder challenge, and cystoscopy with hydrodistension. Treatment options include oral medications, intravesical instillations, and dietary changes and supplements. Oral medications include pentosan polysulfate sodium, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and immune modulators. Intravesical medications include dimethyl sulfoxide, pentosan polysulfate sodium, and heparin. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is the only oral therapy and dimethyl sulfoxide is the only intravesical therapy with U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. To date, clinical trials of individual therapies have been limited in size, quality, and duration of follow-up. Studies of combination or multimodal therapies are lacking.