Items in AFP with MESH term: Urine
Managing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Article
ABSTRACT: Medical and surgical options for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have expanded in recent years. Saw palmetto, the most widely used complementary medication, is less effective than standard medical therapy but has fewer side effects. Although non-selective alpha blockers provide rapid relief of symptoms and are relatively inexpensive, they can cause dizziness and orthostatic hypotension. These effects occur less often with tamsulosin, a more selective alpha blocker. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, slowly reduces prostatic volume but is not as effective as alpha blockers, especially in men with a smaller prostate. Dutasteride, a new 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, has recently been labeled for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Surgery may be appropriate initial treatment in patients with severe symptoms who are not at high risk for complications. Surgery may also be indicated in patients who have failed medical therapy or have recurrent infection, hematuria, or renal insufficiency. Transurethral resection of the prostate is effective in most patients, but it carries some risk of sexual dysfunction, incontinence, and bleeding. Surgical procedures that use thermal microwave or laser energy to reduce hyperplastic prostate tissue have recently become available. In general, the newer procedures are less expensive than transurethral resection of the prostate and have fewer complications; however, the need for retreatment is somewhat greater with these less invasive techniques.
ABSTRACT: Acute interstitial nephritis is an important cause of acute renal failure resulting from immune-mediated tubulointerstitial injury, initiated by medications, infection, and other causes. Acute interstitial nephritis may be implicated in up to 15 percent of patients hospitalized for acute renal failure. Clinical features are essentially those of acute renal failure from any cause, and apart from a history of new illness or medication exposure, there are no specific history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that distinguish acute interstitial nephritis from other causes of acute renal failure. Classic findings of fever, rash, and arthralgias may be absent in up to two thirds of patients. Diagnostic studies such as urine eosinophils and renal gallium 67 scanning provide suggestive evidence, but they are unable to reliably confirm or exclude the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. Renal biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but it may not be required in mild cases or when clinical improvement is rapid after removal of an offending agent or medication. The time until removal of such agents, and renal biopsy findings, provide the best prognostic information for return to baseline renal function. Corticosteroids appear to provide some benefit in terms of clinical improvement and return of renal function, but no controlled clinical trials have been conducted to confirm this.
ABSTRACT: The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease in February 2002. Of the 15 guidelines, the first six are of greatest relevance to family physicians. Part II of this two-part review covers guidelines 4, 5, and 6. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall indicator of kidney function. It is superior to the serum creatinine level, which varies with age, sex, and race and often does not reflect kidney function accurately. The glomerular filtration rate can be estimated using prediction equations that take into account the serum creatinine level and some or all of specific variables (age, sex, race, body size). In many patients, estimates of the glomerular filtration rate can replace 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance measurements. Urine dipsticks generally are acceptable for detecting proteinuria. To quantify proteinuria, the ratio of protein or albumin to creatinine in an untimed (spot) urine sample is an accurate alternative to measurement of protein excretion in a 24-hour urine collection. Patients with persistent proteinuria have chronic kidney disease. Other techniques for evaluating patients with chronic kidney disease include examination of urinary sediment, urine dipstick testing for red and white blood cells, and imaging studies of the kidneys (especially ultrasonography). These techniques also can help determine the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease. Family physicians should weigh the value of the National Kidney Foundation guidelines for their clinical practice based on the strength of evidence and perceived cost-effectiveness until additional evidence becomes available on the usefulness of the recommended quality indicators.
ABSTRACT: There are approximately 250,000 cases of acute pyelonephritis each year, resulting in more than 100,000 hospitalizations. The most common etiologic cause is infection with Escherichia coli. The combination of the leukocyte esterase test and the nitrite test (with either test proving positive) has a sensitivity of 75 to 84 percent and a specificity of 82 to 98 percent for urinary tract infection. Urine cultures are positive in 90 percent of patients with acute pyelonephritis, and cultures should be obtained before antibiotic therapy is initiated. The use of blood cultures should be reserved for patients with an uncertain diagnosis, those who are immunocompromised, and those who are suspected of having hematogenous infections. Outpatient oral antibiotic therapy with a fluoroquinolone is successful in most patients with mild uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Other effective alternatives include extended-spectrum penicillins, amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Indications for inpatient treatment include complicated infections, sepsis, persistent vomiting, failed outpatient treatment, or extremes of age. In hospitalized patients, intravenous treatment is recommended with a fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside with or without ampicillin, or a third-generation cephalosporin. The standard duration of therapy is seven to 14 days. Urine culture should be repeated one to two weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy. Treatment failure may be caused by resistant organisms, underlying anatomic/functional abnormalities, or immunosuppressed states. Lack of response should prompt repeat blood and urine cultures and, possibly, imaging studies. A change in antibiotics or surgical intervention may be required.
Urine Dipstick for Diagnosing Urinary Tract Infection - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
ABSTRACT: Acute pyelonephritis is a common bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidney most often seen in young adult women. History and physical examination are the most useful tools for diagnosis. Most patients have fever, although it may be absent early in the illness. Flank pain is nearly universal, and its absence should raise suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. A positive urinalysis confirms the diagnosis in patients with a compatible history and physical examination. Urine culture should be obtained in all patients to guide antibiotic therapy if the patient does not respond to initial empiric antibiotic regimens. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen in acute pyelonephritis, and in the past decade, there has been an increasing rate of E. coli resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Imaging, usually with contrast-enhanced computed tomography, is not necessary unless there is no improvement in the patient’s symptoms or if there is symptom recurrence after initial improvement. Outpatient treatment is appropriate for most patients. Inpatient therapy is recommended for patients who have severe illness or in whom a complication is suspected. Practice guidelines recommend oral fluoroquinolones as initial outpatient therapy if the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in the community is 10 percent or less. If the resistance rate exceeds 10 percent, an initial intravenous dose of ceftriaxone or gentami- cin should be given, followed by an oral fluoroquinolone regimen. Oral beta-lactam antibiotics and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are generally inappropriate for outpatient therapy because of high resistance rates. Several antibiotic regimens can be used for inpatient treatment, including fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and cephalosporins.
ABSTRACT: Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The new guideline contains six important changes. First, there is a recommendation to consider using sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests, rather than just routine cultures, for detection of group B streptococcus in rectal and vaginal specimens. Second, the colony count required to consider a urine specimen positive is at least 104 colony-forming units per mL. Third, the new guideline presents separate algorithms for management of preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes, rather than a single algorithm for both conditions. Fourth, there are minor changes in the recommended dose of penicillin G for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Fifth, the guideline provides new recommendations about antibiotic regimens for women with penicillin allergy. Cefazolin is recommended for women with minor allergies. For those at serious risk of anaphylaxis, clindamycin is recommended if the organism is susceptible or if susceptibility is unknown, and vancomycin is recommended if there is clindamycin resistance. Finally, the new algorithm for secondary prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns should be applied to all infants, not only those at high risk of infection. The algorithm clarifies the extent of evaluation and duration of observation required for infants in different risk categories.
Diagnosis of Urinary Incontinence - Article
ABSTRACT: Urinary incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician’s office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying possible reversible causes. If no reversible cause is identified, then the incontinence is considered chronic. The next step is to determine the type of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, mixed, or functional) and the urgency with which it should be treated. These determinations are made using a patient questionnaire, such as the 3 Incontinence Questions, an assessment of other medical problems that may contribute to incontinence, a discussion of the effect of symptoms on the patient’s quality of life, a review of the patient’s completed voiding diary, a physical examination, and, if stress incontinence is suspected, a cough stress test. Other components of the evaluation include laboratory tests and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. If the type of urinary incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent urinary tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered.