Items in AFP with MESH term: Vaccination
ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The modified Child-Pugh score, which ranks the severity of cirrhosis based on signs and liver function test results, has been shown to predict survival. Strategies have been established to prevent complications in patients with cirrhosis. Esophageal varices can be identified by endoscopy; if large varices are present, prophylactic nonselective beta blocker therapy should be administered. Alpha-fetoprotein testing and ultrasonography can be effective in screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Vaccines should be administered to prevent secondary infections. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided, and patients should maintain a balanced diet containing 1 to 1.5 g of protein per kg per day. An extensive assessment should be performed before patients with cirrhosis undergo elective surgery. Before advanced liver decompensation occurs, patients should be referred for liver transplantation evaluation. If advanced cirrhosis is present and transplantation is not feasible, survival is between one and two years.
Vaccinations in Pregnancy - Article
ABSTRACT: Adult immunization rates have fallen short of national goals partly because of misconceptions about the safety and benefits of current vaccines. The danger of these misconceptions is magnified during pregnancy, when concerned physicians are hesitant to administer vaccines and patients are reluctant to accept them. Routine vaccines that generally are safe to administer during pregnancy include diphtheria, tetanus, influenza, and hepatitis B. Other vaccines, such as meningococcal and rabies, may be considered. Vaccines that are contraindicated, because of the theoretic risk of fetal transmission, include measles, mumps, and rubella; varicella; and bacille Calmette-Guerin. A number of other vaccines have not yet been adequately studied; therefore, theoretic risks of vaccination must be weighed against the risks of the disease to mother and fetus. Inadvertent administration of any of these vaccinations, however, is not considered an indication for termination of the pregnancy.
Hepatitis B - Article
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 400 million persons, including 1.25 million Americans, have chronic hepatitis B. In the United States, chronic hepatitis B virus infection is responsible for about 5,000 annual deaths from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus is found in body fluids and secretions; in developed countries, the virus is most commonly transmitted sexually or via intravenous drug use. Occupational exposure and perinatal transmission do occur but are rare in the United States. Effective vaccines for hepatitis B virus have been available since 1982; infant and childhood vaccination programs introduced in the 1990s have resulted in a marked decrease in new infections. Risk factors for progression to chronic infection include age at the time of infection and impaired immunity. From 15 to 30 percent of patients with acute hepatitis B infection progress to chronic infection. Medical therapies for chronic hepatitis B include interferon alfa-2b, lamivudine, and the nucleotide analog adefovir dipivoxil.
Hepatitis A - Article
ABSTRACT: The introduction of hepatitis A vaccines in 1995 led to a drop in the number of reported cases of hepatitis A and a shift to a higher percentage of cases occurring in older age groups. The hepatitis A virus survives for extended periods in the environment. Transmission primarily is fecal-oral, although there have been rare instances of transmission through blood products. The virus appears sporadically and is spread by close personal contact, with occasional food-borne outbreaks. Older persons infected by the virus usually develop a symptomatic infection with abrupt onset, fever, and jaundice lasting two months. Children usually have an asymptomatic infection and rarely develop jaundice. Laboratory diagnosis is made by detection of antihepatitis A virus immunoglobulin M in serum. Ten to 20 percent of symptomatic patients experience a prolonged or relapsing course of illness, but chronic infection has not been reported. Fulminant infection occurs in less than 1 percent of patients and can result in emergent liver transplant or death. Prevention starts with thorough handwashing and careful food handling. Prompt disease reporting, the identification of exposed persons, and expeditious administration of immune globulin prevent secondary transmission of the disease. Physicians should consider routine vaccination of children 12 to 23 months of age based on recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination for children two years or older and adults should be included in routine preventive care for those at increased risk of contracting the disease (e.g., travelers to certain countries, men who have sex with men, drug abusers, recipients of clotting factor replacement) and for persons with chronic liver disease.
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