Items in AFP with MESH term: Vaccines
ABSTRACT: Vaccines have turned many childhood diseases into distant memories in industrialized countries. However, questions have been raised about the safety of some vaccines because of rare but serious adverse effects that have been attributed to them. Pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site are common local reactions to vaccines. Fever and irritability may occur after some immunizations. Currently, no substantial evidence links measles-mumps-rubella vaccine to autism, or hepatitis B vaccine to multiple sclerosis. Thimerosal is being eliminated from routine childhood vaccines because of concerns that multiple immunizations with vaccines containing this preservative could exceed recommended mercury exposures. Family physicians should be knowledgeable about vaccines so that they can inform their patients of the benefits of immunization and any proven risks. If immunization rates fall, the incidence of vaccine-preventable illnesses may rise.
ABSTRACT: Recent events have demonstrated that bioterrorists have the ability to disseminate biologic agents in the United States and cause widespread social panic. Family physicians would play a key role in the initial recognition of a potential bioterrorism attack. Familiarity with the infectious agents of highest priority can expedite diagnosis and initial management, and lead to a successful public health response to such an attack. High-priority infectious agents include anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularemia, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fever. Anthrax and smallpox must be distinguished from such common infections as influenza and varicella. Anthrax treatment is stratified into postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of confirmed cutaneous, intestinal, or inhalation anthrax. Disease prevention by vaccination and isolation of affected persons is key in preventing widespread smallpox infection. Many resources are available to physicians when a bioterrorism attack is suspected, including local public health agencies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Primary Immunodeficiencies - Article
ABSTRACT: Primary immunodeficiencies include a variety of disorders that render patients more susceptible to infections. If left untreated, these infections may be fatal. The disorders constitute a spectrum of more than 80 innate defects in the body's immune system. Primary immunodeficiencies generally are considered to be relatively uncommon. There may be as many as 500,000 cases in the United States, of which about 50,000 cases are diagnosed each year. Common primary immunodeficiencies include disorders of humoral immunity (affecting B-cell differentiation or antibody production), T-cell defects and combined B- and T-cell defects, phagocytic disorders, and complement deficiencies. Major indications of these disorders include multiple infections despite aggressive treatment, infections with unusual or opportunistic organisms, failure to thrive or poor growth, and a positive family history. Early recognition and diagnosis can alter the course of primary immunodeficiencies significantly and have a positive effect on patient outcome.
Counseling Parents About Vaccine Safety - Editorials
Billing for Medicare Part D Vaccines - Feature
Our Role as Family Physicians in Vaccine Safety - Editorials
The 2000 Harmonized Immunization Schedule - Practice Guidelines
Update on Immunizations in Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: Vaccine-preventable diseases contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of U.S. adults. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updates its recommended adult immunization schedule annually. The most recent updates include the permissive but not routine use of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine to prevent genital warts in males; a single dose of herpes zoster vaccine for adults 60 years and older, regardless of their history; replacing a single dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults 19 years and older who have not previously received Tdap; expanding the indications for pneumococcal polyvalent-23 vaccine to include all adults with asthma and all smokers; annual seasonal influenza vaccination for all adults; and booster doses of meningococcal vaccine for adults with high-risk conditions. It is vital for family physicians to implement a systematic approach to adult immunization that is patient-, staff-, and physician-focused.